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Four human strains of Oxf are sensitive to a number of antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice; however, minimum inhibitory concentrations differ between strains.
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Five thousand simulated patients with infection.
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Since the choice of empiric therapies should be predicated on accurate information regarding antibiotic resistance rates, there is a critical need for determination of current rates at a local scale, and perhaps in individual patients. Such information would not only guide selection of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy but also inform the development of better methods to identify H. pylori antibiotic resistance at diagnosis. Patient-specific tailoring of effective antibiotic treatment strategies may lead to reduced treatment failures and less antibiotic resistance.
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The clarithromycin-based triple therapy should not yet be prescribed as probabilistic first-line treatment in France. The sequential therapy should be recommended as first-line regimen. The empirical antibiotic therapy with a quadruple association PPI, tetracycline, metronidazole and bismuth is the most interesting alternative, particularly in patients allergic to beta-lactams or having previously received macrolides regardless of the indication. After the treatment, the control must be systematic, 4 weeks after stopping antibiotics and 15 days after stopping PPI. After failure to eradicate H. pylori in the absence of strain isolation, antibiotics already used in previous combination therapy should not be re-prescribed. After two eradication failures, endoscopy with bacterial isolation and determination of antibiotic sensiitivity to clarithromycin and levofloxacin are needed to guide a rescue treatment.
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All 4 Oxf strains were resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, and vancomycin, and they were all sensitive to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. One strain, CC13, was resistant to nitrofurantoin, and the others were sensitive. Differences in minimum inhibitory concentration between strains were demonstrated.
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The arrival and discharge of seven antibiotics were monitored at two trickling filter sewage treatment plants of 6000 and 11,000 population equivalents (PE) and two activated sludge plants of 33,000 and 162,000 PE in Southern England. The investigation consisted of 24 h composite samples taken on two separate days every summer from 2012 to 2015 and in the winter of 2015 (January) from influent and effluent. The average influent concentrations generally matched predictions based on England-wide prescription data for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, oxytetracycline and levofloxacin (within 3-fold), but were 3-10 times less for clarithromycin, whilst tetracycline influent concentrations were 5-17 times greater than expected. Over the four years, effluent concentrations at a single sewage plant varied by up to 16-fold for clarithromycin, 10-fold for levofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole, 7-fold for oxytetracycline, 6-fold for tetracycline, 4-fold for azithromycin and 3-fold for trimethoprim. The study attempted to identify the principal reasons for this variation in effluent concentration. By measuring carbamazepine and using it as a conservative indicator of transport through the treatment process, it was found that flow and hence concentration could alter by up to 5-fold. Measuring influent and effluent concentrations allowed assessments to be made of removal efficiency. In the two activated sludge plants, antibiotic removal rates were similar for the tested antibiotics but could vary by several-fold at the trickling filter plants. However, for clarithromycin and levofloxacin the variations in effluent concentration were above that which could be explained by either flow and/or removal alone so here year on year changes in consumption are likely to have played a role.
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Helicobacter pylori eradication with 7 days of Levofloxacin-based first line therapy was safe and equal compared to 7 days of standard first-line therapy.
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The efficiency of conventional chemotherapy regimens was comparatively studied in 75 patients with recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. In the patients with recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis, conventional chemotherapy regimen "2b" including isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, fluoroquinolone (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin), and canamycin (amikacin) versus conventional chemotherapy regimen "2a" including isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin could cease bacterial isolation after 3-month therapy, as evidenced by sputum microscopy (86.1 and 62.5%, respectively; p < 0.05). Cavity closure was more frequently observed after 6-month chemotherapy using regimen "2b" (76.7 and 48.0%, respectively; p < 0.05). In patients with recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis who isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) resistant to isoniazid and other antituberculous drugs (exclusive of rifampicin), 3-month use of conventional regimen "2b" led to cessation of bacterial isolation (as evidenced by the inoculation test) in 66.7% of cases; but this did not occur with conventional regimen "2a" in any case. Similarly, 3-month use of regimens "2b" and "2a" in patients isolating MBT resistant to rifampicin and other agents (exclusive of isoniazid) resulted in the cessation of bacterial isolation in 80 and 0% of cases, respectively. In multidrug resistance, these parameters were 11.1 and 0%, respectively.
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Twenty-five patients had documented diagnosis of CDAD. Eighty-four percent were female, 76% white, 16% black, 4% Asian, and 4% Hispanic. Age ranged between 60 and 97 years (mean: 82.2 years). The control group had 28 patients, 68% were female, 89% white, and 11% black. Age ranged between 61 and 101 years (mean: 82.3 years).
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Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured using broth microdilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2011 guidelines. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were tested: fosfomycin tromethamine, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, cefdinir, cefixime, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, azithromycin, nitrofurantoin and oxacillin. Escherichia coli isolates were screened and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) production was confirmed by a double-disk synergy test.