cIAIs are commonly due to mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and require both source control and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy.
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Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe.
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Because production of beta-lactamase by normal pharyngeal flora could account for penicillin treatment failure, we studied the effect of anaerobic and aerobic beta-lactamase-producing bacteria on bacteriologic outcome in acute group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis. We compared 10-day courses of orally administered phenoxymethyl penicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, using a randomized, single-blind treatment protocol. Eligible patients were 2 to 16 years of age and had culture-proven acute GABHS pharyngitis; 89 patients (43 penicillin, 46 amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) were compliant with therapy. beta-Lactamase-producing organisms were isolated before therapy from the throats of 67% of patients treated with penicillin and 63% treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Throat cultures after completion of therapy were positive for GABHS in 7 (7.9%) of 89 patients. The initial GABHS T type persisted (treatment failure) in only 4 (4.5%) of 89 patients, including 3 (6.5%) of 46 who received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and in 1 (2.3%) of 43 who received penicillin (not statistically significant). Bacteriologic treatment failure was unrelated to recovery of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria at the time of enrollment or after treatment. We conclude that beta-lactamase production by normal pharyngeal flora does not fully explain the failure of penicillin therapy for acute streptococcal pharyngitis. Using an antibiotic effective against beta-lactamase-producing bacteria will not eliminate the problem of bacteriologic treatment failure.
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Among 617 patients enrolled in the original study, 78 with DFIs were evaluable for treatment efficacy. Clinical cure rates at TOC were similar for moxifloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam/amoxicillin-clavulanate (68% versus 61%) for patients with investigator-defined infection (P=0.54). Overall pathogen eradication rates in the microbiologically-valid population were 69% versus 66% for moxifloxacin and comparator, respectively (P=1.00).
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The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old) were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE). At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log(10) (p = 0.003) and 8.1±0.5 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log(10) (p = 0.003), respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p = 0.01). Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.
A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) drug-drug interaction between acenocoumarol and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid antibiotic was assessed in eight healthy volunteers, using a population PK-PD) model. Each subject received at day 1 a single dose of 8 mg of acenocoumarol. Then 1 g of amoxicillin + 250 mg of clavulanic acid was given from days 3 to 9. On day 8, each subject received a single dose of 8 mg of acenocoumarol concomitantly with the antibiotic combination. Eleven blood samples were taken during 48 h following each acenocoumarol administration. Acenocoumarol plasma concentrations and prothrombin time were measured at each sampling time. We first identified the structural PK model by pooling data from this trial with individual data from other acenocoumarol PK trials. An indirect response model was used to fit PD data. Models were built using a non-linear mixed effect modelling approach with nonmem software. Covariates were tested on PK and PD parameters, including antibiotic treatment. Acenocoumarol PK data were fitted by a two-compartment, first-order input model with log normal inter-individual variability. Weight and antibiotic treatment were found to improve significantly the fit of PK data with a 15% decrease in acenocoumarol clearance with concomitant antibiotics (P < 0.05). An indirect response model was successfully applied to the PK-PD data of acenocoumarol. No covariate, including antibiotic treatment effect, significantly affected PT. Drug-drug interaction was demonstrated at the PK level, without any PD corollary.
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Topical otic treatment with ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone otic suspension is superior to treatment with oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid suspension and results in more clinical cures and earlier cessation of otorrhea with fewer adverse effects in children with acute otitis media with otorrhea through tympanostomy tubes.
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Hospital acquired MRSA colonisation was reduced from 10.6% in period 1, to 1.1 and 1.4% in periods 2 and 3, respectively (p<0.001). Similarly, MRSA infection rates fell from 10.6 to 2.9 and 0.9% over the same time frame (p<0.001). The most dramatic changes in MRSA infection rates occurred in patients undergoing aneurysm repair (MRSA infection 30.1% in period 1 vs. 3.9 and 2.9% in periods 2 and 3) and lower limb revascularization (31 vs. 0 vs. 4.2%). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the system of isolation was a significant factor reducing MRSA infection and colonisation rates (p<0.001).