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The objective of the present trial was to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of moxifloxacin (400 mg) given intravenously (i.v.) once daily followed by oral moxifloxacin (400 mg) for 7 to 14 days with the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of co-amoxiclav (1.2 g) administered by i.v. infusion three times a day followed by oral co-amoxiclav (625 mg) three times a day, with or without clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily (i.v. or orally), for 7 to 14 days in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring initial parenteral therapy. A total of 628 patients were enrolled and assessed by evaluation of their clinical and bacteriological responses 5 to 7 days and 21 to 28 days after administration of the last dose of study medication. Although the trial was designed, on the basis of predefined outcomes, to demonstrate the equivalence of the two regimens, the results showed statistically significant higher clinical success rates (for moxifloxacin, 93.4%, and for comparator regimen, 85.4%; difference [Delta], 8.05%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.91 to 13.19%; P = 0.004) and bacteriological success rates (for moxifloxacin, 93.7%, and for comparator regimen, 81.7%; Delta, 12.06%; 95% CI, 1.21 to 22.91%) for patients treated with moxifloxacin. This superiority was seen irrespective of the severity of the pneumonia and whether or not the combination therapy included a macrolide. The time to resolution of fever was also statistically significantly faster for patients who received moxifloxacin (median time, 2 versus 3 days), and the duration of hospital admission was approximately 1 day less for patients who received moxifloxacin. The treatment was converted to oral therapy immediately after the initial mandatory 3-day period of i.v. administration for a larger proportion of patients in the moxifloxacin group than patients in the comparator group (151 [50.2%] versus 57 [17.8%] patients). There were fewer deaths (9 [3.0%] versus 17 [5.3%]) and fewer serious adverse events (38 [12.6%] versus 53 [16.5%]) in the moxifloxacin group than in the comparator group. The rates of drug-related adverse events were comparable in both groups (38.9% in each treatment group). The overall incidence of laboratory abnormalities was similar in both groups. Thus, it is concluded that monotherapy with moxifloxacin is superior to that with a standard combination regimen of a beta-lactam and a beta-lactamase inhibitor, co-amoxiclav, with or without a macrolide, clarithromycin, in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted to a hospital.
Bacterial counts of Strains 1 and 2 were >or= 6 log(10) reduced with all antibiotics tested at 12 and 24 h. Against Strains 3 and 4, log(10) reductions at 12 and 24 h were significantly higher for cefditoren versus cefuroxime (P < 0.01) (although both exhibited bactericidal activity, i.e. >or= 3 log(10) reduction) and versus the two co-amoxiclav regimens (P < 0.001) (that exhibited negligible initial inocula reductions).
A 5-day course of CAE, given twice daily, was shown to be equivalent to the two regimens of A/CA for treatment of acute otitis media with effusion in children.
Clinical and bacteriological response rates were determined at a test-of-cure visit, which was conducted up to 10 days following the completion of treatment. Radiological response was assessed at a follow-up visit.
Pharmacists are the custodians of drugs; hence their education, training, behaviors and experiences would affect the future use of drugs at community and hospital pharmacies. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the self-prescribing antibiotic trends, knowledge and attitudes among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. We found that pharmacy students had higher risks of experiencing URIs related symptoms such as cough (RR; 1.7, p = 0.002), allergy (RR; 2.07, p = 0.03) and running nose (RR; 3.17, p<0.005), compared to non-pharmacy students -resulting in higher probabilities of selecting cough syrups (OR; 2.3, p<0.005), anti-histamines (OR; 1.8, p = 0.036) and anti-inflammatory/anti-pyretic (OR; 2.4, p<0.005) drugs. Likewise, bachelor's degree pupils (OR; 2, p = 0.045), urban area residents (OR; 2.44; p = 0.002) and pharmacy students (OR; 2.9, p<0.005) exhibited higher propensities of antibiotic self-use-notable classes include, b-lactams (45.9%) followed by macrolides (26.5%) and augmentin (28.94%), respectively. Surprisingly, pharmacy and non-pharmacy students had higher odds of using antibiotics in common cold (OR; 3.2, p<0.005) and pain (OR; 2.37, p = 0.015), respectively. Unlike non-pharmacy students, pharmacy students were likely to select alternative therapy, such as Joshanda (OR; 2.22, p = 0.011) and were well acquainted with antibiotic hazards, with 77% reduction in risk of antibiotics re-use. In conclusion, university students exhibited antibiotic self-prescribing trends in conditions that does not warrant their use, thus are irrational users. The pharmacy education confers very little benefit to rational self-prescribing practices among students, while non-pharmacy students are more vulnerable to repeated antibiotic usage. Thus, the educational and training modules should be designed for university students to disseminate targeted information regarding the potential hazards of antibiotic self-use and importance of consultation with qualified and registered medical doctor/pharmacist before starting with antibiotics.
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The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of a new regimen of cefaclor (25 mg/kg BID) with amoxicillin-clavulanate and erythromycin TID at standard doses for the treatment of pediatric patients with acute pharyngotonsillitis (APT). A total of 673 children (age range, 2 to 12 years) with signs and symptoms of APT were enrolled; 245 of these children who had a positive throat culture for group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) entered the study and were randomly assigned to receive cefaclor 25 mg/kg BID, amoxicillin-clavulanate 15 mg/kg TID, or erythromycin 15 mg/kg TID. A 10-day antibiotic course was prescribed for each patient. Clinical and bacteriologic responses were assessed at the end of treatment (day 10) and at the follow-up visit (day 30). All GABHS strains isolated from throat cultures were tested for in vitro sensitivity to the antibiotics used in the study. Side effects (mainly nausea) were rare and mild in each group and did not require discontinuation of therapy. No GABHS strain was resistant to cefaclor or to amoxicillin-clavulanate; 37.9% of the strains were resistant to erythromycin. The results indicated that cefaclor given BID seems to be as effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate given TID (cure rate, 91.9% and 90.5%, respectively) and more effective than erythromycin given TID (cure rate, 76.8%) for the treatment of patients with APT. Erythromycin resistance among GABHS is an emerging problem in many geographic areas.
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Routine prescription of antibiotics for women with preterm rupture of the membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and improvements in a number of short-term neonatal morbidities, but no significant reduction in perinatal mortality. Despite lack of evidence of longer-term benefit in childhood, the advantages on short-term morbidities are such that we would recommend antibiotics are routinely prescribed. The antibiotic of choice is not clear but co-amoxiclav should be avoided in women due to increased risk of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis.
Cavitary lung lesions in patients from developing countries are mostly caused by tuberculosis (TB). However, when TB cannot be confirmed, a primary lung abscess caused by anaerobic bacteria from the mouth should be considered, especially in patients with poor dentition. We present a case of a Sudanese woman with a cavitary lung lesion and severe gingivitis. Bulleidia extructa was isolated as a single pathogen from the pulmonary cavity.
To explore the possibility of designing empiric antibiotic therapy for symptomatic UTI in patients at Aga Khan University Hospital by looking at the trends of UTI, common pathogens isolated and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern.
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Three hundred seventy-eight patients were randomized to a single dose of azithromycin extended release and 371 to 10 days of amoxicillin/clavulanate. In the per-protocol population at day 5, 70/236 patients (29.7%) in the azithromycin extended release arm and 45/238 patients (18.9%) in the amoxicillin/clavulanate arm had resolution of symptoms (difference = 10.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-18.4%). By day 28, 26/236 patients (11.0%) in the azithromycin extended release arm and 27/238 patients (11.3%) in the amoxicillin/clavulanate arm had used additional antibiotics (difference = -0.4%; 95% CI: -6.1% to 5.3%). Additional physician visits, quality of life, and overall satisfaction were similar between groups.
Twelve healthy subjects (6 females, 6 males; age range 18-40 y) participated in this trial. Linezolid was given as 600 mg tablets b.i.d. for 7 d and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as 1000 mg tablets o.d. for 7 d. The washout period between the administration of the 2 antibacterial agents was 4 weeks. Faecal samples were collected prior to administration (Days -2 and -1), during administration (Days 4 and 8) and after administration (Days 14, 21 and 35) for microbiological analyses. The samples were diluted in pre-reduced media and inoculated aerobically and anaerobically on non-selective and selective media. Different colony types were identified to genus level by morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. During the administration of linezolid, enterococci in the intestinal aerobic microflora were markedly suppressed while Klebsiella organisms increased in number. In the anaerobic microflora, the numbers of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, clostridia and Bacteroides decreased markedly while no impact on the other anaerobic bacteria was observed. The microflora was normalized in all volunteers after 35 d. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid administration caused increased numbers of enterococci and Escherichia coli in the aerobic intestinal microflora while numbers of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and clostridia decreased significantly. Clostridium difficile strains were recovered from 3 of the volunteers. At the last visit, the intestinal microflora of the volunteers had returned to normal levels. The administration of linezolid mainly had an impact on the gram-positive bacteria and linezolid thus had an ecological profile different from that of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
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The main outcome measure was clinical cure. Secondary study outcomes of interest were microbiological cure and vaginal E coli colonization at the 2-week follow-up visit.