Human primary hamstring tenocytes were exposed to different doses of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone with and without PRP. AlamarBlue, β-galactosidase assay, and live/dead stain were used to measure, respectively, viability, senescence, and death in tenocyte culture.
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Mycobacterium terrae is ubiquitous in our environment. M terrae infections most commonly involve tendon sheaths, bones, bursae, and joints. We report a case of infectious arthritis of the knee caused by M terrae in a 21-year-old man who had non-specific chronic synovitis. No organism was seen on microscopy or isolated from cultures until months later. Initially the M terrae culture was considered a contaminant and specific anti-mycobacterial treatment was not advised. The patient was commenced on suppressive therapy for persistent effusion and discomfort. Eventually, the M terrae infection was confirmed and he was commenced on clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ethambutol. The triple antibiotic regimen was continued for 2 years. The knee improved but never completely settled. The patient chose to cease all antibiotic medication. The knee remained swollen and irritable, with little chance of eradicating the organism.
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The complete sequences of two previously reported plasmids carrying plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes from Shigella flexneri in China have not been available. The present study using the p5-C3 assembly method revealed that (1) the plasmid pSF07201 with aac(6')-Ib-cr had 75,335 bp with antibiotic resistance genes CTX-M-3, TEM-1, and FosA3; (2) seven fragments of pSF07201 had more than 99% homology with the seven corresponding plasmids; (3) the other plasmid pSF07202 with qnrS had 47,669 bp with antibiotic resistance gene TEM-1 and 99.95% homology with a segment of pKF362122, which has the qnrS gene from location 162,490 to 163,146. A conjugation and electrotransformation experiment suggested that these two plasmids might horizontally transfer between and coexist in Escherichia coli J53 and S. flexneri 2a 301. Either the aac(6')-Ib-cr or qnrS gene contributed to, but only the coexistence of the two genes conferred to the resistance to ciprofloxacin in these two strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the complete sequences of the aac(6')-Ib-cr- and qnrS-positive plasmids in Shigella isolates. Our findings indicate that two genes probably evolve through horizontal plasmid transfer between the different bacterial types.
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Whilst we confirm production of ROS in response to ciprofloxacin, we have no data to support the hypothesis that this leads to selection of MDR strains. Our results indicate that the mutations in tctA and glgA were random as they did not pre-exist in the parental strain, and that the mutation in tctA did not provide a survival advantage or disadvantage in the presence of antibiotic.
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Fosfomycin is recommended as first-line treatment for acute uncomplicated cystitis in women. It has demonstrated in vitro activity against a variety of pathogens; however, a paucity of data are available from the USA. We determined the susceptibility of a collection of urine isolates to fosfomycin and compared multiple methods of susceptibility testing. Consecutive non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from the clinical microbiology laboratory between August 2013 and January 2014. Isolates represented hospitalised or emergency department patients with monomicrobial bacteriuria. Fosfomycin MICs were determined in duplicate, on separate days, by Etest and disk diffusion and results were compared with agar dilution. Nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin were used as comparators. MIC results were categorised using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Correlation between the three testing methods was evaluated. Overall susceptibility to fosfomycin was 94.4%, 93.5% and 87.9% by agar dilution, disk diffusion and Etest, respectively. Five fosfomycin-resistant isolates were identified, including two Morganella morganii, one P. aeruginosa, one Proteus mirabilis and one Enterobacter aerogenes. Across all organisms, rates of essential agreement, categorical agreement, minor errors, major errors and very major errors for Etest/disk diffusion compared with agar dilution were 77.3%/NA, 89.5/93.8%, 7.1/5.0%, 3.6/1.3% and 0/0%, respectively. Fosfomycin displayed fairly consistent activity against a majority of isolates collected when using the susceptibility breakpoint of 64 μg/mL. MICs for E. coli were particularly low (≤2 μg/mL). These data lend support to current guidelines that recommend fosfomycin as empirical first-line therapy for uncomplicated UTI.
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Of the total 302 Salmonella spp. isolated, 257 were Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (85.1%) and 45 (14.9%) were S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A. The majority of the isolates recovered were from the pediatric age group (54.6%) and males (60.6%). Complete susceptibility was observed to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin over the last two years (2009 and 2010), with an increase in resistance to nalidixic acid (100%) and ciprofloxacin (13.6%).
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A multicenter observational study was retrospectively performed in 7 teaching hospitals in Korea from January to December 2012. The study included adult patients (≥ 18 years) with infection caused by MRSA isolates, susceptible to clindamycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. The primary end point was treatment outcome, including all-cause mortality and switching of antibiotics. Drug-related adverse events and the lengths of hospital stay were also compared between the two treatment groups.
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A cross-sectional study design was employed. Urethral and cervical specimens were collected for the isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from patients attending Centro de Saúde do Porto. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for kanamycin, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, tetracycline and penicillin.
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A novel strain of lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented cucumber was selected due to its high glucansucrase activity. It was identified on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Pediococcus pentosaceus CRAG3 (GenBank accession number JX679020). The isolate was round shaped, Gram positive, and catalase negative displaying typical features of lactic acid bacterium. It produced 145 ± 3.27 mg lactic acid per ml of cell-free supernatant. It showed ability to ferment carbohydrates such as sucrose, dextrose, and arabinose; showed resistance to antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, vancomycin; displayed acid production in triple sugar iron agar test and non-motile nature. Interestingly, the isolate also displayed potential probiotic properties such as hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, coaggregation, and in vitro cell adhesion ability. It exhibited resistance against lysozyme and simulated gastric juice at pH 3.0 with 75 and 58% survival, respectively. It also showed tolerance toward 0.3%, w/v bile salts with 73% survival and ability to deconjugate bile salts. The isolate exhibited antibacterial activity and ability to utilize prebiotics such as inulin and raffinose. These results indicate both probiotic property and glucansucrase-producing ability of P. pentosaceus CRAG3.
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Treatment of chickens with enrofloxacin selects for resistance in Camp. jejuni in highly pre-colonized birds. However, a dose of 500 ppm enrofloxacin prevented the selection of resistant campylobacters.
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To determine the epidemiological characteristics, predisposing factors, microbiological pattern, sensitivity pattern and treatment outcome of microbial keratitis.