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The changes of pharmacokinetic parameters when levofloxacin (LVFX) and vancomycin (VCM) were administered concomitantly were studied in rats. There was an increase in the AUC and Tmax of LVFX with concomitant administration, but no effect on Cmax. There was also an increase in the AUC and T1/2 of VCM with concomitant administration, while Vd was reduced. Concomitant administration had no effect on the correlation between the serum and hepatic tissue concentrations of LVFX, but it markedly decreased the correlation between the serum and renal tissue concentrations of VCM. BUN was increased at 8 h after the administration of VCM. There have been reports that renal dysfunction can be caused by VCM, and our findings suggested that concomitant administration of LVFX and VCM must be performed with caution.
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After approval from of the Animal Care Committee, 10 MHS pigs, and 6 MHS pigs were anesthetized with hemodynamic and systemic metabolic monitoring. Microdialysis catheters were placed intramuscularly. After equilibration, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were injected as a rapid bolus and continuous infusions. Lactate was measured in the dialysate and statistically analyzed was done (Wilcoxon-test; U-test; P < 0.05).
Successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection after failure of standard triple therapy is difficult. The efficacy and safety of levofloxacin based triple therapy as a first-line therapy has-been studied.
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Minocycline-based combination therapy has been suggested to be a possible choice for the treatment of infections caused by minocycline-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii, but its use for the treatment of infections caused by minocycline-resistant A. baumannii is not well established. In this study, we compared the efficacy of minocycline-based combination therapy (with colistin, cefoperazone-sulbactam, or meropenem) to that of colistin in combination with meropenem for the treatment of minocycline-resistant A. baumannii infection. From 2006 to 2010, 191 (17.6%) of 1,083 A. baumannii complex isolates not susceptible to minocycline from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program were collected. Four representative A. baumannii isolates resistant to minocycline, amikacin, ampicillin-sulbactam, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam were selected on the basis of the diversity of their pulsotypes, collection years, health care setting origins, and geographic areas of origination. All four isolates had tetB and overexpressed adeABC, as revealed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Among all minocycline-based regimens, only the combination with colistin produced a fractional inhibitory concentration index comparable to that achieved with meropenem combined with colistin. Minocycline (4 or 16 μg/ml) in combination with colistin (0.5 μg/ml) also synergistically killed minocycline-resistant isolates in time-kill studies. Minocycline (50 mg/kg of body weight) in combination with colistin (10 mg/kg) significantly improved the survival of mice and reduced the number of bacteria present in the lungs of mice compared to the results of monotherapy. However, minocycline (16 μg/ml)-based therapy was not effective at reducing biofilm-associated bacteria at 24 or 48 h when its effectiveness was compared to that of colistin (0.5 μg/ml) and meropenem (8 μg/ml). The clinical use of minocycline in combination with colistin for the treatment of minocycline-resistant A. baumannii may warrant further investigation.
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The prevalence of multidrug resistance and quinolone resistance among salmonella serovars was high.
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A retrospective chart review of 553 patients at a single institution between January 2009 and July 2014 was performed, identifying patients who (1) underwent implant-based breast reconstruction and subsequently suffered an infection and (2) had cultures available with sensitivities. We reviewed patient demographics, implant characteristics, prophylactic intravenous antibiotics, oral antibiotic maintenance used, microbiologic details, and outcomes. The goal was to identify the most common causative bacteria, as well as their sensitivities to commonly used antibiotics, to help guide antibiotic decision-making.
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To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI.
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The isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis (a rare opportunistic pathogen with a yet unresolved pathogenicity) from the ascites fluid of a patient with bacterial peritonitis is reported. The strain was first identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the result was confirmed using 16S rDNA sequencing. An antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines published in 2013, revealing sensitivity to all antibiotics tested. The patient was treated effectively with levofloxacin.
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To determine the prevalence of macrolide antibiotic and levofloxacin resistance in infections with Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus or GAS), strains were collected from 45 medical institutions in various parts of Japan between October 2003 and September 2006. Four hundred and eighty-two strains from patients with GAS infections were characterized genetically. Strains were classified into four groups according to the type of infection: invasive infections (n=74) including sepsis, cellulitis and toxic-shock-like syndrome; acute otitis media (AOM; n=23); abscess (n=53); and pharyngotonsillitis (n=332). Among all strains, 32 emm types were identified; emm1 was significantly more common in invasive infections (39.2 %) and AOM (43.5 %) than in abscesses (3.8 %) or pharyngotonsillitis (10.2 %). emm12 and emm4 each accounted for 23.5 % of pharyngotonsillitis cases. Susceptibility of GAS strains to eight beta-lactam agents was excellent, with MICs of 0.0005-0.063 mug ml(-1). Macrolide-resistant strains accounted for 16.2 % of all strains, while the percentages of strains possessing the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B) and mef(A) were 2.5 %, 6.2 % and 7.5 %, respectively. Although no strains with high resistance to levofloxacin were found, strains with an MIC of 2-4 mug ml(-1) (17.4 %) had amino acid substitutions at either Ser-79 or Asp-83 in ParC. These levofloxacin-intermediately resistant strains included 16 emm types, but macrolide-resistant strains were more likely than others to represent certain emm types.