Food was withheld from foals overnight before intragastric administration of erythromycin estolate (25 mg/kg of body weight; n = 8) and erythromycin phosphate (25 mg/kg; 7). Four foals received both drugs with 2 weeks between treatments. Plasma erythromycin concentrations were determined at various times after drug administration by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Maximum plasma peak concentrations, time to maximum concentrations, area under plasma concentration versus time curves, half-life of elimination, and mean residence times were determined from concentration versus time curves.
To establish a nationwide status quo of compliance of German ambulatory pediatric patients with oral antibiotics prescribed for various bacterial infections.
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Pre- and post-extraction blood cultures were taken from 242 patients. The post-extraction ones were taken from 100 unpremedicated patients, from 42 with an erythromycin estolate cover, and from 100 patients after protection with pyrrolidino methyl tetracycline. The 100 post-extraction blood cultures from unpremedicated patients gave 64 positive results which yielded 155 strains, 88 of which were not aerobes. One hundred and fifteen representative strains were tested for sensitivity to 22 antibiotics. Of the 42 patients who received the erythromycin orally, 16 yielded positive blood cultures of mixtures of aerobes and anaerobes and of the 100 given one intravenous injection of the tetracycline three only developed a bacteraemia of a single type of aerobe. The serum concentrations obtained with the tetracycline given intravenously were 15 to 20 times higher than the serum levels obtained with the erythromycin given orally. There is a strong indication for using this kind of efficient antibiotic cover for dental extractions and other operative procedures known to be followed by a bacteraemia.
A high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of erythromycin and its esters in plasma, urine and saliva is presented. A diethyl ether extract of sample was chromatographed on a reversed-phase column and components of the column effluent were monitored by electrochemical detection at +0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The method sensitivity limit was 10 ng with inter-day coefficients of variation from 3.2 to 10.3%. In order to assess precisely the relative concentrations of erythromycin esters (ethylsuccinate or estolate) and their active by-product erythromycin base, it is necessary to adopt measures preventing their continuous hydrolysis in biological fluids and during sample preparation.
More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more reliable eradication of β-hemolytic streptococci is desirable. In cases of allergy or incompatibility of penicillin, cephalosporins or macrolides (e.g. Erythromycin-estolate) are valuable alternatives.
The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2004); MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2004); EMBASE (January 1974 to August 2003); conference abstracts and reference lists of articles were searched. Study investigators and pharmaceutical companies were approached for additional information (published or unpublished studies). There were no constraints based on language or publication status.
The effects of subacute administration of chlorpromazine HCI (CPZ), erythromycine base and erythromycin estolate on the cholestatic response to intravenous taurolithocholate (TLC) and taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC) in the rat were investigated. All three enhanced the recovery of bile flow after TCDC but not after TLC. Erythromycin base and estolate enhanced bile flow recovery after TCDC and potentiated the increase of plasma 5'-nucleotidase, as did CPZ. Neither erythromycin estolate nor CPZ precipitated a cholestatic response in rat maintained for 9-13 days on a diet supplemented with 0.05% lithocholic acid. It is concluded that the interaction of CPZ and erythromycins with bile salts is not based on the cholestatic properties of the drugs, and hence is not a practical way of distinguishing cholestatic from non-cholestatic drugs.
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Comparison of serum antibacterial activity against a beta-hemolytic streptococcus and a penicillin-resistant staphylococcus was made in a cross-over study in volunteers after ingestion of oral suspensions and capsules of triacetyloleandomycin and erythromycin estolate. Oral suspensions yielded earlier peak titers, but ultimate peak titers and duration of activity were similar to those observed after ingestion of capsules. Antibacterial activity of serum against both organisms was consistently greater with both erythromycin estolate preparations than with the triacetyloleandomycin preparations. These in vitro data were comparable to observations made previously in monkeys infected with the same organisms, although comparative clinical efficacy in monkeys did not reflect these implied therapeutic differences.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.