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Pinaclav (Augmentin)
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Pinaclav

Pinaclav is an oral antibacterial combination consisting of amoxicillin and the beta lactamase inhibitor, clavulanate potassium (the potassium salt of clavulanic acid).

Other names for this medication:
Aclav, Alfoxil, Alphamox, Ambilan, Amimox, Amixen, Amobay, Amobiotic, Amocla, Amoclan, Amoclane, Amodex, Amoklavin, Amoksiklav, Amolin, Amorion, Amotaks, Amoval, Amoxal, Amoxan, Amoxibeta, Amoxicap, Amoxiclav, Amoxidal, Amoxidin, Amoxiduo, Amoxihexal, Amoxiplus, Amoxival, Amoxoral, Amoxsan, Amoxy, Amoxydar, Ampliron, Amylin, Atoksilin, Augmaxcil, Augmentin, Augmex, Augpen, Bactoclav, Betamox, Bioclavid, Biomox, Blumox, Cavumox, Cilamox, Clabat, Clamentin, Clamicil, Clamovid, Clamoxin, Claneksi, Clavam, Clavamel, Clavamox, Clavaseptin, Clavet, Clavinex, Clavipen, Clavobay, Clavubactin, Clavucid, Clavulin, Clavulox, Clavumox, Clonamox, Curam, Dexyclav, Dimopen, Duomox, Enhancin, Exten, Fabamox, Fleming, Fulgram, Germentin, Gimaclav, Gloclav, Glomox, Grinsil, Hiconcil, Himox, Homer, Hymox, Imadrax, Julmentin, Julphamox, Kesium, Klamoks, Klavox, Klavunat, Largopen, Macropen, Maxamox, Medoclav, Megamox, Megapen, Moxacil, Moxatag, Moxiclav, Moxilen, Moxilin, Moxypen, Myclav, Mymox, Natravox, Neomox, Nisamox, Noprilam, Noroclav, Novaclav, Novamox, Novax, Novocilin, Optamox, Oramox, Origin, Panklav, Pediamox, Pinamox, Ranclav, Ranmoxy, Ranoxyl, Rapiclav, Ronemox, Sulbacin, Suprapen, Synulox, Topcillin, Trifamox, Ultramox, Unimox, Vetrimoxin, Vulamox, Xiclav, Zoxil

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Also known as:  Augmentin.

Description

Pinaclav is a brand name for an antibiotic, called co-amoxiclav, that is used to treat a wide range of conditions, from bronchitis to Lyme disease. It is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for children, frequently dispensed for ear infections.

The drug is a combination of two active ingredients: amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Together, the drugs fight bacteria that would ordinarily be resistant to amoxicillin alone.

Dosage

Pinaclav may be taken without regard to meals; however, absorption of clavulanate potassium is enhanced when Pinaclav is administered at the start of a meal. To minimize the potential for gastrointestinal intolerance, Pinaclav should be taken at the start of a meal.

The usual adult dose is one 500-mg tablet of Pinaclav every 12 hours or one 250-mg tablet of Pinaclav every 8 hours. For more severe infections and infections of the respiratory tract, the dose should be one 875-mg tablet of Pinaclav every 12 hours or one 500-mg tablet of Pinaclav every 8 hours. Adults who have difficulty swallowing may be given the 125 mg/5 mL or 250 mg/5 mL suspension in place of the 500-mg tablet. The 200 mg/5 mL suspension or the 400 mg/5 mL suspension may be used in place of the 875-mg tablet.

Two 250-mg tablets of Pinaclav should not be substituted for one 500-mg tablet of Pinaclav. Since both the 250-mg and 500-mg tablets of Pinaclav contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250-mg tablets are not equivalent to one 500-mg tablet of Pinaclav.

The 250-mg tablet of Pinaclav and the 250-mg chewable tablet should not be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable. The 250-mg tablet of Pinaclav and the 250-mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (as the potassium salt). The 250-mg tablet of Pinaclav contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid, whereas the 250-mg chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid.

Overdose

If you take too much this medication, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center, or seek emergency medical attention right away.

If this medication is administered by a healthcare provider in a medical setting, it is unlikely that an overdose will occur. However, if overdose is suspected, seek emergency medical attention.

Storage

Store between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep bottle closed tightly. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Pinaclav are:

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  • pinaclav 500 125 mg side effects
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  • pinaclav and alcohol

Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterials, including Pinaclav. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with Pinaclav, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, Pinaclav should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

pinaclav dosage

We treated a 5-year-old girl and a 6-year-old boy with acquired Brown's syndrome associated with pansinusitis. In both patients, the diagnosis was established roentgenographically, and the patients were treated with oral antibiotics. Systemic corticosteroids were used in one case, although their clinical value was uncertain. Patients presenting with acute-onset Brown's syndrome of undetermined cause should undergo computed imaging of the orbits and paranasal sinuses.

pinaclav tablets

The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro/ex vivo bactericidal activity of a new coamoxiclav single-dose sachet formulation (1 g amoxicillin + 0.125 g clavulanic acid) against a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus influenzae. The evaluation covered the 12 h period after antibiotic administration. Serum specimens from the 12 healthy volunteers included in the pharmacokinetic study were pooled by time point and in equal volumes. Eight of 12 pharmacokinetic sampling time points were included in the study. At time points 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2.5, 5, 8 and 12 h post-dosing, the kinetics of bactericidal activity were determined for each of the serial dilutions. Each specimen was serially diluted from 1:2 to 1:256. The index of surviving bacteria (ISB) was subsequently determined for each pharmacokinetic time point. For all the serum samples, bactericidal activity was fast (3-6 h), marked (3-6 log(10) reduction in the initial inoculum) and sustained over the 12 h between-dosing interval. The results obtained also confirmed that the potency of the amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combination was time dependent against the species under study and that the time interval over which the concentrations were greater than the MIC (t > MIC) was 100% for the strain under study. The data thus generated constitute an interesting prerequisite with a view to using co-amoxiclav 1.125 g in a bd oral regimen.

pinaclav antibiotic

Pharmacokinetic analysis of individual steady-state plasma amoxicillin concentrations was done both in the i.v. infusion phase and in the oral phase of AMC, administered on the basis of the quantitative susceptibility of the detected microbe(s). The in vitro growth/killing dynamic parameters on model of Staphylococcus aureus as the most frequent isolate were evaluated. Therapeutic protocol optimization, leading to prediction of the earliest time to reduce the number of viable bacteria to 10-6 as a surrogate criterion of efficacy, was performed.

pinaclav 500mg dosage

Of the total prescriptions, 410 contained NSAIDs (18.6%), including diclofenac (40.2%), low dose aspirin (23.9%), ibuprofen (17.8%) and indomethacin (15.1%). A minority of these prescriptions contained a combination of these agents (2.5%). Only one prescription contained cyclooxyeganse-2 inhibitors (0.2%). The appropriateness of NSAID use to the diagnosis was as follows: appropriate (58.3%), inappropriate (14.4%) and difficult to tell (27.3%). The rate of ATB use was 30.3% (669 prescriptions). The ATBs prescribed were amoxicillin (23.3%), augmentin (14.3%), quinolones (12.7%), first and second generation cephalosporins (9.4% and 12.7%, respectively) and macrolides (7.2%). ATB combinations were identified in 9.4%, with the most common being second-generation cephalopsorins and metronidazole (4.3%). Regarding the appropriateness of prescribing ATBs according to the diagnosis, it was appropriate in 44.8%, inappropriate in 20.6% and difficult to tell in 34.6% of the prescriptions.

pinaclav antibiotic and alcohol

This study showed that postoperative care with amoxicillin/clavulante did not improve the short-term outcome of FESS on chronic rhinosinusitis or decrease bacterial growth 3weeks after FESS, although the long-term influence was not evaluated in this study.

pinaclav 250 125 mg

Fundamental and clinical studies on BRL 25000 granules, containing 2 parts amoxicillin (AMPC) and 1 part clavulanic acid (CVA) (a beta-lactamase inhibitor) were carried out in the pediatric field. Serum concentrations and urinary excretion rates were determined after oral administration of BRL 25000 granules at a dose of 20 mg/kg to 2 children. The mean peak serum concentrations of AMPC and CVA were 4.89 and 2.85 micrograms/ml at 1 hour after administration, with serum half-lives (T 1/2) of 1.15 and 0.89 hours respectively. Mean cumulative urinary excretion rates of AMPC and CVA in the 6 hours after administration were 24.91% and 10.19%, respectively. BRL 25000 granules were also administered at daily doses of 25.1-60.4 mg/kg in 3 divided doses, to 20 pediatric patients with bacterial infections (4 acute tonsillitis, 2 acute pharyngitis, 3 suspected scarlet fever, 3 acute bronchitis, 8 urinary tract infection). The efficacy rate was 100% clinically and 70% bacteriologically. No adverse reactions were observed, however, abnormal laboratory findings were observed in 4 cases (slight elevation of GOT in 2, GPT in 1, eosinophilia in 1).

pinaclav suspension

The levels of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid have been measured in bone, serum and synovial fluid following the administration of 1.2 g Augmentin prior to hip replacement. Both antibiotics readily enter synovial fluid in levels similar to that found in serum. The levels found in bone are a minimum of ten times lower than those found in serum. Sequential administration of Augmentin with a six-hourly dose schedule does not increase the levels found in any of the tissues studied.

pinaclav 500 125 mg

Concentrations of cefaclor (CFC) or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMX/CA) in middle-ear fluid collected preserving the stability and clearing the cell contents has been compared to those obtained using the traditional method. Sixty-seven children with effusive otitis media were treated orally with CFC (20 mg/kg of body weight) or AMX/CA (20 mg/kg) (4:1 ratio). The concentrations in cell-free fluid (C-) appear higher than those in the total fluid (C+) (as assayed traditionally).

pinaclav and alcohol

Quality control guidelines for standardized antimicrobial susceptibility test methods are critical to the continuing accuracy of the tests. In this report, quality control limits were proposed for 22 organism-antimicrobial combinations with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of three or four log2 dilution steps. Disk diffusion zone diameter ranges were proposed for azithromycin compared with Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 and ticarcillin with and without clavulanic acid tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The data from five or six participating laboratories produced > or = 94.7% of results within proposed MIC limits, and 94.3%-99.0% of zones were found within suggested zone guidelines. These proposed quality control ranges should be validated by in-use results from clinical laboratories.

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Despite the conservative approach followed in terms of ceftriaxone data, both the clinical results and cost-effectiveness supported the use of ceftriaxone in the treatment of CAP in adults in the hospital setting.

pinaclav dosage

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged to be one of the most important pathogens both in health care and in community-onset infections. Daptomycin (DAP) is a cyclic anionic lipopeptide recommended for treatment of skin infections, bacteremia, and right-sided endocarditis caused by MRSA. Resistance to DAP (DAP(r)) has been reported in MRSA and is mostly accompanied by a parallel decrease in oxacillin resistance, a process known as the "seesaw effect." Our study provides evidence that the seesaw effect applies to other β-lactams and carbapenems of clinical use, including nafcillin (NAF), cefotaxime (CTX), amoxicillin-clavulanic (AMC), and imipenem (IMP), in heterogeneous DAP(r) MRSA strains but not in MRSA strains expressing homogeneous β-lactam resistance. The antibacterial efficacy of DAP in combination with β-lactams was evaluated in isogenic DAP-susceptible (DAP(s))/Dap(r) MRSA strains originally obtained from patients that failed DAP monotherapy. Both in vitro (MIC, synergy-kill curve) and in vivo (wax worm model) approaches were used. In these models, DAP and a β-lactam proved to be highly synergistic against both heterogeneous and homogeneous clinical DAP(r) MRSA strains. Mechanistically, β-lactams induced a reduction in the cell net positive surface charge, reverting the increased repulsion provoked by DAP alone, an effect that may favor the binding of DAP to the cell surface. The ease of in vitro mutant selection was observed when DAP(s) MRSA strains were exposed to DAP. Importantly, the combination of DAP and a β-lactam prevented the selection of DAP(r) variants. In summary, our data show that the DAP-β-lactam combination may significantly enhance both the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of anti-MRSA therapeutic options against DAP(r) MRSA infections and represent an option in preventing DAP(r) selection in persistent or refractory MRSA infections.

pinaclav tablets

A cross-sectional study of 391 children aged one day to 12 years, on Jelliffe ward in Mulago Hospital, who had short peripheral venous intravascular catheters uncoated with no antibiotic or antiseptic, was done. Social demographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical examination including the catheter site were determined at enrollment. The children had their blood, catheter tip and hub samples taken off for culture and sensitivity as well as complete blood counts. The data collected was entered using EPI-INFO and analysed with SPSS packages.

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Testimonials
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pinaclav 250 125 mg 2015-01-22

The local high concentration of antibiotics in the oropharynx immediately after intake of antibiotic suspensions seem to have little or no impact on the extent of disturbance of the microflora in this region. Children of this age group seem prone to either Derma Genetix Reviews reinfection, recolonization or persistence of pathogens within 2 weeks after treatment. Furthermore, co-infection with more than one pathogen seems common in children with AOM and infection with beta-lactamase producing microorganisms occurs frequently.

pinaclav 500mg dosage 2016-11-11

A total of 409 urine specimens were retrieved and analysed and 100 cases had negative cultures. Three hundred and nine cases had positive cultures. Sixty eight point seven percent were females while 31.3% were males with a mean age of 31 years. One hundred and thirty five out of 409 patients (33%) had classical signs and symptoms. In 143 (35%) cases E. coli was isolated. The other cultures were organisms Sulfa Drugs List other than E. coli. There was a higher resistance to clotrimazole in E. coli (71%) as compared to non-E. coli organisms (23%. There was a higher resistance rate to Nalidixic acid in non-E. Coli organisms (35%) and higher resistance rate to Augmentin in E. Coli 43 versus 18% (c/f non-E.Coli. Forty patients in the study had predisposing factors for UTI.

pinaclav 500 125 mg side effects 2016-11-08

Neither amoxicillin nor amoxicillin-clavulanate offered any clinical benefit compared with placebo for children with clinically Cefoprox Medicine diagnosed acute sinusitis.

pinaclav dosage 2015-08-10

The subjects were 241 patients with lower respiratory tract infections treated at two medical centers in Austria; 161 of the patients were evaluated clinically and, of these, 69 were evaluated bacteriologically. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ofloxacin (n = 101) or a comparison drug (doxycycline [n = 27] or amoxicillin-clavulanate [n = 33]). The mean age of patients in the ofloxacin group was 61 years; that of patients in the comparison groups was 64 years. The mean duration of treatment was nine days; most patients received the study drug intravenously for three days and then orally for four to seven days. In most patients, the doses were 200 mg of ofloxacin twice daily; 100 mg of doxycycline twice daily; or 2,200 mg of amoxicillin-clavulanate intravenously two or three times daily, followed by 625 mg orally two to four times daily. The clinical response was rated satisfactory (all pretreatment symptoms disappeared) in 28% of the ofloxacin-treated patients and in 22% of the other two groups; improved (all except one symptom improved) in 70% and 65%, respectively; and unsatisfactory in 2% and 13%, respectively. The bacteriologic response was rated satisfactory in 59% of the 39 evaluable ofloxacin-treated patients and in 50% of the 30 patients in the other two groups. Most of the unsatisfactory responses were associated with persistent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transient side effects of mild to moderate severity were noted in nine of Keflex Dosing In Children the 101 ofloxacin-treated patients and in seven of the 60 patients in the other two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

pinaclav antibiotic and alcohol 2015-08-02

Two independent, investigator-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trials, one of which included microbiologic evaluation of middle-ear fluid obtained by use of tympanocentesis, compared the efficacy and safety of two oral antibiotics, cefuroxime axetil suspension and amoxicillin/clavulanate suspension, in the treatment of children 3 months to 12 years old diagnosed with acute otitis media with effusion (AOME). Four hundred seventy-seven pediatric patients with signs and symptoms of AOME were enrolled at 20 centers and were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of treatment with either cefuroxime axetil suspension 30 mg/kg per day in two divided doses (n = 235) or amoxicillin/clavulanate suspension 40 mg/kg per day in three divided doses (n = 242). Patients were assessed for their response to treatment once during treatment (at 3 to 5 days Oroken Syrup ) and twice after treatment (at 1 to 4 days and at 14 to 18 days). In the study that included tympanocentesis, bacteriologic assessments were based on middle-ear fluid cultures obtained pretreatment, and, when possible, posttreatment in patients with an unsatisfactory clinical outcome. Organisms were isolated from the pretreatment middle-ear fluid specimens of 120 (73%) of 164 patients undergoing tympanocentesis, with the primary pathogens being Streptococcus pneumoniae. Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis (27%, 24%, and 6% of isolates, respectively). Forty-four percent of the H influenzae isolates and 94% of the M catarrhalis isolates that were tested for beta-lactamase production were positive. A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement) was obtained in 70% of clinically assessable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P = 0.40). With respect to the eradication of bacterial pathogens, in the study that included tympanocentesis a satisfactory outcome (cure or presumed cure) was obtained in 84% (32 of 38) and 95% (36 of 38) of bacteriologically assessable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P = 0.26). Treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than was treatment with cefuroxime axetil (37% vs 16%; P < 0.001), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of drug-related gastrointestinal adverse events (34% vs 12%; P < 0.001), particularly diarrhea. Eight patients in the cefuroxime axetil group and 11 patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group withdrew from the studies because of drug-related adverse events. These results indicate that cefuroxime axetil suspension 15 mg/kg twice daily is as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate suspension 13.3 mg/kg three times daily in the treatment of pediatric patients with AOME, but produces fewer gastrointestinal adverse events, particularly diarrhea.

pinaclav and alcohol 2017-09-09

We studied Vanadyl Sulfate 25 Mg 22 consecutive patients who had suspected antibiotic-associated colitis and who were negative for C. difficile. Patients underwent diagnostic colonoscopy, and among those who received a diagnosis of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis, stool samples were cultured for K. oxytoca. We isolated K. oxytoca strains and tested them for cytotoxin production using a tissue-culture assay. In addition, we also cultured stool samples obtained from 385 healthy subjects for K. oxytoca. An in vivo animal model for antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis was established with the use of Sprague-Dawley rats.

pinaclav suspension 2017-12-06

Septic arthritis in the elderly carries a high mortality. Underlying risk factors, such as diabetes, malignancy, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatobiliary disease and AIDS, should be assessed. Rare causative organisms are occasionally encountered. Here, we describe a case of an 80-year-old diabetic patient with liver cirrhosis who developed Klebsiella pneumoniae septic arthritis, which is a rare cause of joint infection. We postulate that this case supports the notion that the patient's knee effusion Cleocin Drug seeded during a primary K pneumoniae bacteraemia of intestinal origin and related to liver cirrhosis.

pinaclav 500 125 mg 2017-10-06

papG is the Gal(alpha1-4)Gal-specific adhesin gene Cefspan Generic of Escherichia coli P fimbriae. The three alleles of papG are associated with different receptor-binding preferences, occur in different lineages of E. coli and appear differentially associated with specific clinical syndromes, e.g. allele II with pyelonephritis and allele III with cystitis. However, no data are available regarding associations of the papG alleles with clinical outcomes.

pinaclav antibiotic 2016-12-31

BRL 25000 (187.5 and 375 mg tablets), a formulation of CVA-K and AMPC in the ratio of 1:2, and AMPC (as control drug) were administered to healthy volunteers, aged 20 approximately 28 years and weighing 60 approximately 85 kg (68.8 kg, on average). Each drug was administered 3 times a day (after meals) for 5 days and the volunteers were separated into 3 groups of 4 subjects each. The effect on the fecal flora was studied before dosage, during administration (day 3 and 5) and day 3 and 5 after the administration course was completed. Studies were undertaken to isolate C. difficile on the last day of administration and 3 and 5 days after administration had ceased. Fecal concentrations and the susceptibility of the isolates to AMPC, CVA-K and BRL 25000 were measured. Side effects and laboratory findings were studied. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In BRL 25000 (187.5 mg X 3/day) group, the population of E. coli was on average, 1 X 10(6) approximately 9 X 10(6) cells/g feces before initiation of administration and it increased by 2 logarithms 3 and 5 days after initiation of administration. By 3 and 5 days after end of administration, the E. coli population was similar to the initial population. The population of Klebsiella sp. was 1 X 10(6) approximately 9 X 10(6) cells/g feces on average before commencement of dosage and it increased by 2 logarithms 3 days after initiation of administration but there was no consistent change in the Klebsiella sp. population thereafter. The Enterobacter sp., population was not consistent neither was the population of other Enterobacteriaceae. In total, the mean Enterobacteriaceae population was 1 X 10(7) approximately 9 X 10(7) cells/g feces before initiation of administration and increased by 2 logarithms 3 days after initiation of administration, and then returned to the initial level 5 days after end of administration. No consistent changes in population were noted for the other Gram-negative bacilli. The Staphylococcus sp. population was 1 X 10(6) approximately 9 X 10(6) cells/g feces on average before initiation of administration. This organism was detected in only 1 case 3 days after initiation of administration and in another 5 days after initiation of administration, thereafter, the population was similar to the initial population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)