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Pulmocef (generic name: cefuroxime axetil; brand names include: Zinacef / Bacticef / Cefasun / Cefudura / Cefuhexal / Cefurax / Cefutil / Cetil / Froxime / Elobact / Oraxim / Zinnat) belongs to a group of medicines known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Pulmocef is used to treat various bacterial infections including infections of the throat, lungs and ears; skin and skin structure infections; and urinary tract infections. Pulmocef is also used to treat uncomplicated gonorrhea and Lyme disease.

Other names for this medication:
Altacef, Cefakind, Ceftin, Ceftum, Cefuroxime, Oratil, Stafcure, Supacef, Zinacef, Zocef

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Lorabid, Cefotan, Cefzil, Lorabid Pulvules, Mefoxin, Raniclor

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Also known as:  Ceftin.


Pulmocef eye drops and eye ointment are used to treat bacterial eye infections. Eye infections are a common cause of conjunctivitis. In conjunctivitis, your eye becomes inflamed, feels gritty, and may water more than usual. The white of your eye may look red, and your eyelids can become swollen and stuck together with a discharge when you wake up in the morning. Only one eye may be infected to begin with, but it often spreads to both eyes.

Most cases of infective conjunctivitis clear within a few days without treatment. For more severe infections, or for infections which do not clear on their own, an antibiotic eye drop or ointment such as Pulmocef can be helpful.

Pulmocef works by helping to kill the bacteria which are causing the infection. It is available on prescription. You can also buy the drops and the ointment from a pharmacy, without a prescription, if it is for conjunctivitis in an adult or a child over 2 years of age. Do not use Pulmocef eye drops or ointment for a child under 2 years old, unless it has been prescribed by a doctor.


Take this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

You may take Pulmocef tablets with or without meals.

Pulmocef oral suspension (liquid) must be taken with food.

Shake the oral liquid well just before you measure a dose. To be sure you get the correct dose, measure the liquid with a marked measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

If you switch from using the tablet form to using the oral suspension (liquid) form of Pulmocef, you may not need to use the same exact dosage in number of milligrams. The medication may not be as effective unless you use the exact form and strength your doctor has prescribed.

Use this medication for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. Pulmocef will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

This medication can cause you to have false results with certain medical tests, including urine glucose (sugar) tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using Pulmocef.


Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Overdose symptoms may include seizure (black-out or convulsions).


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Pulmocef are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Contact your doctor right away if stomach pain or cramps, severe diarrhea, or bloody stools occur during treatment or within several months after treatment with Pulmocef. Do not treat diarrhea without first checking with your doctor.

The tablet and oral suspension forms of Pulmocef are not equivalent. Do not substitute one for the other.

Pulmocef only works against bacteria; it does not treat viral infections (eg, the common cold).

Be sure to use Pulmocef for the full course of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely. The bacteria could also become less sensitive to this or other medicines. This could make the infection harder to treat in the future.

Long-term or repeated use of Pulmocef may cause a second infection. Tell your doctor if signs of a second infection occur. Your medicine may need to be changed to treat this.

Diabetes patients - Pulmocef may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong. Ask your doctor before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Hormonal birth control (eg, birth control pills) may not work as well while you are using Pulmocef. To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control (eg, condoms).

Lab tests, including liver function, kidney function, and complete blood cell count, may be performed while you use Pulmocef. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Pulmocef should not be used in children younger 3 months; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Pulmocef while you are pregnant. Pulmocef is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Pulmocef.

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Amorphous nanoparticles of cefuroxime axetil (CFA), a poorly water-soluble drug, were produced by the controlled nanoprecipitation method without any surfactants at room temperature. The influence of the operation parameters, such as the types of solvent and anti-solvent, the stirring speed, the solvent/anti-solvent (S/AS) volume ratio, the drug concentration and the precipitation temperature, were experimentally investigated. The results indicated that increasing the stirring speed and the S/AS volume, decreasing the drug concentration and the temperature favored to decrease the particle size from 700 to 900 nm to approximately 300 nm. The XRD analyses confirmed that the as-prepared CFA was amorphous nanoparticles. Furthermore, the amorphous CFA nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced dissolution property when compared to the commercial spray-dried product. The results demonstrated that the controlled nanoprecipitation method is a direct and feasible technology which could be utilized for preparation of the poorly water-soluble pharmaceutical nanoparticles.

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A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized multicentric study conducted with two treatment arms including 310 patients has demonstrated that pristinamycin, 2 g/d for 8 days, has a clinical efficacy equivalent to cefuroxime axetil, 500 mg/d.

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Computerized pharmacodynamic simulations were performed against strains with penicillin/amoxicillin/cefuroxime/cefditoren minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, microg/ml) and serotypes: strain 1 (0.25/0.12/1/0.12; serotype 6A), strain 2 (2/4/ 2/0.25; serotype 6B), strain 3 (4/16/4/0.5; serotype 14), and strain 4 (4/16/8/1; serotype 14).

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To compare the efficacy and safety of azithromycin dihydrate monotherapy with those of a combination of cefuroxime axetil plus erythromycin as empirical therapy for community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients.

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In 94/121 (77.7%) patients Borrelia was detected in skin samples by PCR testing and 65/118 (55.1%) patients had positive skin culture result (96.8% B. afzelii, 3.2% B. garinii). Borrelia culture and PCR results correlated significantly with the presence of central clearing and EM size, while Borrelia burden correlated significantly with central clearing, EM size, and presence of newly developed or worsened symptoms since EM onset, with no other known medical explanation (new or increased symptoms, NOIS). In addition, the logistic regression model for repeated measurements adjusted for time from inclusion, indicated higher Borrelia burden was a risk factor for incomplete response (defined as NOIS and/or persistence of EM beyond 14 days and/or occurrence of new objective signs of Lyme borreliosis). The estimated association between PCR positivity and unfavorable outcome was large but not statistically significant, while no corresponding relationship was observed for culture positivity.

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Bacteriologic response to cefuroxime axetil and cefaclor administered for 10 days was evaluated in acute otitis media (AOM) in patients aged 6-36 months. Middle ear fluid culture was obtained by tympanocentesis before treatment, on day 4 or 5 after initiation of treatment, and if clinical relapse occurred before day 17. Bacteriologic failure was observed in 32% of patients receiving cefaclor versus 15% of patients receiving cefuroxime axetil (P = .009). Failure rates increased with increasing MIC: For Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.5 microg/mL (established as cutoff value for cefuroxime by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards [NCCLS]) discriminated between success and failure. For Haemophilus influenzae, high failure rates were observed for cefaclor, even with low MICs (< or = 1.0 microg/mL), and with both drugs they tended to increase with increasing MIC, even for values below the cutoff suggested by the NCCLS (8.0 and 4.0 microg/mL for cefaclor and cefuroxime, respectively). Thus, for AOM caused by H. influenzae, lower susceptibility cutoff levels for MICs should be established.

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A combination of fusion and surface adsorption techniques was used to enhance the dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil. Solid dispersions of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by two methods, namely fusion method using poloxamer 188 alone and combination of poloxamer 188 and Neusilin US2 by fusion and surface adsorption method. Solid dispersions were evaluated for solubility, phase solubility, flowability, compressibility, Kawakita analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction study, in vitro drug release, and stability study. Solubility studies showed 12- and 14-fold increase in solubility for solid dispersions by fusion method, and fusion and surface adsorption method, respectively. Phase solubility studies showed negative ΔG (0) tr values for poloxamer 188 at various concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%) indicating spontaneous nature of solubilisation. Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry spectra showed that drug and excipients are compatible with each other. Powder X-ray diffraction study studies indicated that presence of Neusilin US2 is less likely to promote the reversion of the amorphous cefuroxime axetil to crystalline state. in vitro dissolution studies, T50% and mean dissolution time have shown better dissolution rate for solid dispersions by fusion and surface adsorption method. Cefuroxime axetil release at 15 min (Q15) and DE15 exhibited 23- and 20-fold improvement in dissolution rate. The optimized solid dispersion formulation was stable for 6 months of stability study as per ICH guidelines. The stability was ascertained from drug content, in vitro dissolution, Fourier transform-infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry study. Hence, this combined approach of fusion and surface adsorption can be used successfully to improve the dissolution rate of poorly soluble biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug cefuroxime axetil.

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We studied 121 adult patients with EM in whom skin biopsy specimens were cultured and analyzed by quantitative PCR for the presence of Borreliae. Evaluation of clinical and microbiological findings were conducted at the baseline visit, and 14 days, 2, 6, and 12 months after treatment with either amoxicillin or cefuroxime axetil.

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Cefprozil is an orally active cephalosporin which has demonstrated activity against a wide range of organisms in vitro. It is particularly active against the Gram-positive organisms Streptococcus pyogenes, pneumoniae and agalactiae and against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus are not susceptible to cefprozil. Cefprozil is also moderately active against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, many Enterobacteriaceae and certain anaerobic organisms, and is relatively stable to hydrolysis by a number of beta-lactamases. In comparative trials, the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of cefprozil 500mg or 20 mg/kg administered once or twice daily has been comparable with multiple daily dosage regimens of erythromycin in patients with tonsillitis or pharyngitis, with cefaclor and amoxicillin/clavulanate in lower respiratory tract infections, with amoxicillin/clavulanate and erythromycin in skin and skin-structure infections and with cefaclor in acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The clinical efficacy of cefprozil is similar to that of cefaclor in patients with tonsillitis or pharyngitis but the bacteriological efficacy of cefprozil is significantly greater than that of cefaclor. Cefprozil is clinically more effective than cefuroxime axetil in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections and demonstrated greater efficacy than cefaclor in one of 2 comparative studies when administered twice daily in patients with skin and skin-structure infections. In children with acute otitis media, cefprozil 15 mg/kg twice daily was as effective as cefaclor or amoxicillin/clavulanate 13.3 mg/kg 3 times daily and was as effective as cefixime 8 mg/kg once daily. The most frequently reported adverse effects associated with cefprozil, diarrhoea and nausea, are usually mild to moderate in severity and discontinuation of treatment is rarely necessary. Thus, cefprozil with its convenient administration regimen appears to be a suitable alternative to cefaclor, cefixime, amoxicillin/clavulanate or erythromycin for the treatment of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin and skin-structure infections, and otitis media in children. While cefprozil has shown similar efficacy to cefaclor in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, well-controlled clinical trials comparing its efficacy with that of cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole) in this indication are required.

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Out of the 29436 emergencies studied on 30 days, 821 were diagnosed with acute otitis media. Fifteen point seven percent of the cases were already receiving antibiotics (22% amoxicillin clavulanate, 20% amoxicillin and 11% cefuroxime axetil). For the treatment, at discharge, of the 93% an antibiotic was prescribed (amoxicillin clavulanate in 41%, amoxicillin in 15%, cefuroxime axetil in 11%, cefaclor 6% and azithromycin 5%). Two point eight percent of the children were admitted. According to the guidelines of the panel of experts consulted, appropriateness was 61% for antibiotics of first choice, 12% for drugs of alternate use and 25% for inadequate treatment. The different hospitals presented significant variability in the type of antibiotic used and the appropriateness of such.

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The influence of buffer composition on the release of cefuroxime axetil from stearic acid microspheres has been investigated, with particular emphasis on establishing the relationship between buffer composition and release at a single pH value. Studies of drug dissolution and release from spheres in pH 7.0 citrate phosphate buffer (CPB), boric acid buffer (BAB), phosphate buffer mixed (PBM) and Sorensens modified phosphate buffer (SMPB) indicated marked differences in release profile from the spheres, with an approximate rank order of SMPB > CPB approximately BAB > PBM. The role of added sodium was then investigated by examining the release profiles in SMPB and PBM to which sodium ions had been added. Increases in the sodium content from approximately 0.11 to 0.2 M were found to decrease the release rate for the SMPB, while increases from 0.007 to 1.0 M sodium in PBM resulted in a maximum release being seen for the systems containing 0.05 M sodium. Studies on surface disintegration, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and sodium uptake using flame emission spectroscopy, indicated an interrelationship between medium composition, disintegration and release. The data are discussed in terms of the possible mechanisms associated with drug release from these spheres.

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Development of resistance to available antimicrobial agents has been identified in every decade since the introduction of the sulfonamides in the 1930s. Current concerns for management of acute otitis media (AOM) are multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase producing Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In the USA, amoxicillin remains the drug for choice for AOM. Increasing the current dose to 80 mg/kg/day in two doses provides increased concentrations of drug in serum and middle ear fluid and captures additional resistant strains of S. pneumoniae. For children who fail initial therapy with amoxicillin an expert panel convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggested amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil or intramuscular ceftriaxone. To protect the therapeutic advantage of antimicrobial agents used for AOM, it is important to promote judicious use of antimicrobial agents and avoid uses if it is likely that viral infections are the likely cause of the disease, to implement programs for parent education and to increase the accuracy of diagnosis of AOM. Conjugate polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines are currently in clinical trial; early results indicate protective levels of antibody can be achieved with a three dosage schedule beginning at 2 months of age. Finally, alternative medicine remedies may be of value for some infectious diseases including AOM; garlic extract is bactericidal for the major bacterial pathogens of AOM but is heat- and acid-labile and loose activity when cooked or taken by mouth.

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pulmocef tablet 2016-10-15

In a prospective randomized multicenter study, 308 children, ages 2 to 15 years, were randomized to receive either cefuroxime axetil suspension (N = 152; 20 mg/kg/day twice daily) for 4 days, penicillin suspension (N = 156; 45 mg/kg/day divided three times daily) for 10 days, of whom 97 and 103, respectively, had culture-proved group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus infection. Two to 4 days after completion of the treatment, group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus were eradicated from 85 of 97 (87.6%) children taking cefuroxime and from 90 of 103 (87.4%) taking penicillin; respective clinical cure rates were 94.8% and 96.1%. Clinical signs and symptoms resolved significantly more rapidly with cefuroxime (P < 0.05). At 28 to 32 days posttreatment the eradication of the primary isolate was confirmed in 94.4 and 91.9% of cefuroxime axetil and penicillin-treated patients, respectively. Drug-related adverse events (mainly gastrointestinal and cutaneous reactions) were reported in 2. Cefuroxime Axetil Tablets Side Effects 1 and 2.7% of the cefuroxime- and penicillin-treated patients, respectively. Results indicated that a 4-day treatment with cefuroxime axetil was as effective and well-tolerated as the conventional 10-day treatment with penicillin in children with acute group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis.

pulmocef tablet use 2015-01-30

Cefuroxime-axetil, the 1-acetoxyethyl ester of cefuroxime, is a prodrug for oral administration. The indication of this new formulation in the treatment of community acquired RTI required an updating of its activity against respiratory pathogens. A total of 260 isolates were included in a study using MIC determination (agar dilution technique): the mode MICs for Haemophilus spp., Branhamella catarrhalis, streptococci, S. pneumoniae ranged from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/l; no difference was noted between beta-lactamase producers and non producers in Haemophilus and B. catarrhalis; coagulase positive staphylococci, E. coli, K. pneumoniae isolated from RTI exhibited mode MICs not exceeding 4 mg/l (except for methicillin-R staphylococci mode MIC greater than 128 mg/l). Simultaneously the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in healthy volunteers after a loading dose (500 mg) of the drug: 7 consecutive samples collected after a Cefpodoxime Proxetil And Potassium Clavulanate Tablets Dosage light meal provided the following data: Cmax = 7.77 +/- 2.2 mg/l; Tmax = 2.33 +/- 0.23 hrs; t1/2 beta = 1.18 +/- 0.19 hrs; AUC = 22.17 +/- 6.4 Cmax and AUC were half of these values after administration of 250 mg. These results, together with the known intrinsic beta-lactamase stability of cefuroxime, should ensure sufficient in vivo concentrations and effective in vivo antibacterial activity against most respiratory pathogens after oral administration of cefuroxime-axetil.

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To evaluate a pilot project of social marketing of urethritis treatment packages. The project, initially designed for over the counter sale in private pharmacies, was finally restricted by national health authorities Metrocream Buy to primary healthcare settings in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon.

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The efficacy of cefuroxime axetil compared with phenoxymethylpenicillin (PcV) was studied in group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GAS) culture-proven tonsillitis in children aged 3-12 years with a history of at least 1 episode of tonsillopharyngitis requiring antibiotic therapy during the previous 3 months. This was a comparative, randomized, investigator-blind, multicentre study. A total of 236 children received either cefuroxime axetil suspension or PcV syrup. Inclusion criteria were a positive, rapid, group A strep test verified by bacteriological culture and clinical signs and symptoms of tonsillopharyngitis. Cefuroxime axetil treatment gave a significantly higher bacteriological eradication rate and clinical cure rate than PcV. At day 2-5 post treatment the eradication rates were 99/114 (87%) for Metronidazole Gel Side Effects Blood Discharge cefuroxime axetil vs 61/109 (56%) for PcV (p < 0.001). The clinical cure rates were 98/114 (86%) and 73/109 (67%) respectively (p < 0.01). Up to 21-28 days post-treatment, 9/114 (8%) cefuroxime axetil patients and 37/109 (34%) PcV patients were treatment failures or had recurrence/reinfection of GAS tonsillopharyngitis (p < 0.001). More than 90% of the patients who experienced bacteriological treatment failure at either the first or second follow-up had the same serotype isolated pre- and post-treatment. During the study period, 21/114 (18%) patients in the cefuroxime axetil group and 50/109 (46%) patients in the PcV group received additional antibiotics (p < 0.001). No serious adverse events were noted and the mild adverse events were equally distributed among the patients in the 2 study groups: 15% for cefuroxime axetil and 14% for PcV.

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to analyze adherence to therapeutic guidelines for AOM. Azithromycin 600 Mg Liquid Form

pulmocef 500 mg tab 2016-03-18

B. burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated in 12 of 134 (9%) patients. Eleven blood isolates were typed: 10 were found to be B. afzelii and 1 was Borrelia garinii. Comparison of blood culture-positive and -negative patients revealed no differences in pretreatment characteristics or in posttreatment clinical course. However, worsening of local Cefodox 200 Mg 6 and/or systemic signs and symptoms at the beginning of antibiotic therapy (Jarish-Herxheimer's reaction) was identified more often in the blood culture-positive than in the blood culture-negative group (5 of 12 vs. 17 of 122, respectively; P = 0.0274).

pulmocef 500 mg uses 2015-06-17

Cefuroxime axetil, a prodrug of the cephalosporin cefuroxime, has proven in vitro antibacterial activity against several gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, including those most frequently associated with various common community-acquired infections. In numerous randomised, controlled trials, 5 to 10 days' treatment with oral cefuroxime axetil (250 or 500 mg twice daily) was an effective treatment in patients with upper (URTI) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) as assessed by clinical and bacteriological criteria. The drug was as effective as several other cephalosporins, quinolones, macrolides and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Shorter courses (5 to 10 days') of cefuroxime axetil were at least as effective as a 10 day course. Furthermore, sequential therapy with intravenous cefuroxime (750 mg 2 or 3 times daily for 2 to 5 days) followed by oral Lexinor Norfloxacin 400 Mg cefuroxime axetil (500 mg twice daily for 3 to 8 days) proved an effective treatment in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This approach provided similar efficacy to intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, a full parenteral course of cefuroxime, or intravenous then oral azithromycin or clarithromycin. Additionally, cefuroxime axetil was an effective treatment in patients with genitourinary, skin and soft-tissue infections, and erythema migrans associated with early stage Lyme disease. The drug is well tolerated by adult and paediatric patients, with adverse effects that are consistent with those of other cephalosporins. The majority of adverse events (primarily gastrointestinal disturbances) were mild to moderate in intensity and reversible upon discontinuation of treatment, with very few serious adverse events reported.

pulmocef drugs 2017-07-26

Twenty-eight children, 0.5 Zistic Tab A500 -5 years old, diagnosed with acute otitis media (AOM), were treated with either amoxycillin-clavulanate (13.3 mg/kg 3 times daily) or cefuroxime axetil (15 mg/kg twice daily) for 7 days. Saliva samples and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected before, directly after and 2 weeks after treatment. The saliva samples were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed and the nasopharyngeal swabs were qualitatively analyzed. All isolated strains were tested for beta-lactamase production.

pulmocef cv 250 mg uses 2016-05-06

Studies evaluating short-course therapy have focused on prevalent infections with demonstrable aetiology. Metaanalyses of clinical trials demonstrate that uncomplicated acute otitis media in children can be successfully treated with a 5-day course of cefuroxime axetil. In the treatment of tonsillopharyngitis, 4 - 5-day courses of oral cephalosporins compared favourably with the standard 10-day penicillin V regimen. The clinical cure rate and the bacteriological eradication rate were both significantly higher for cephalosporins than for penicillin V. Bacteriological failure rates for cephalosporins were about half those for penicillin. In studies on acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, no difference in the clinical cure rates or relapse rates was found between short-course therapy using cephalosporins and standard courses. The short courses had the advantage of improved gastrointestinal tolerance compared with longer durations of treatment. The results suggest that new short-course dosing regimens are viable and may be favourable in terms of increased tolerability, reduction in healthcare costs, enhanced patient compliance and the control of the development of antibiotic resistance.

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Thirteen oral cephems (cefprozil, loracarbef, cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefetamet pivoxil, cefixime, cefdinir, cefadroxil, cephradine, cephalexin, cefatrizine, and cefroxadine), the cephalosporin class representative cephalothin, cefazolin, and the macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were compared for their antibacterial activities against 790 recent clinical isolates. These oral agents differed in their spectra and antibacterial potencies against community-acquired pathogens.

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Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is a common reason for healthcare visits, and one of the more common reasons for the use of antibiotics. In an effort to improve the diagnosis and appropriate therapy of ABRS, several guidelines have been developed. Current guidelines recommend extended-spectrum cephalosporins as one of the first-line options for the treatment of this condition. In addition, most cephalosporins recommended by recent guidelines (e.g. cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefdinir) are unlikely to be associated with cross-reactivity with penicillins, and may be considered effective alternatives to amoxicillin in adults who are allergic to penicillin.

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The outpatient department at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (Pa), a tertiary referral center.