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Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common reasons for prescribing antibiotics in primary care. However, it is not clear whether antibiotics improve the outcome for patients with clinically diagnosed acute rhinosinusitis. We evaluated the effect of a combination product of amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate on adults with acute rhinosinusitis that was clinically diagnosed in a general practice setting.
The pharmacokinetics of loracarbef in plasma and a mild inflammatory exudate were studied in human volunteers. After a single oral dose of 400 mg, a mean maximum drug concentration (Cmax) of 17.8 mg/L was achieved in the plasma at 1.2 h (mean Tmax). The mean plasma elimination half-life (T1/2) was 1.3 h. In the inflammatory exudate the mean Cmax was 8.9 mg/L at a mean Tmax of 2.0 h and with a mean T1/2 of 1.7 h. The mean penetration into the inflammatory exudate was 90.1%. The in-vitro activity of loracarbef was determined against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90s of 4 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively, regardless of beta-lactamase production), as well as Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 of 2 mg/L). Loracarbef was also active against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC90s of < or = 2 mg/L). The in-vitro activity and pharmacokinetics of loracarbef suggest that it would be efficative therapy for patients with community-acquired respiratory and urinary tract infections caused by the most frequently-encountered bacterial pathogens.
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Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 150 Haemophilus influenzae isolates obtained during population-based surveillance for meningitis in Salvador, Brazil. Ten (6.7%) isolates were resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Of these, two isolates, a beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producer, were resistant to amoxacillin-clavulinic acid. These findings indicate that present antibiotic regimens in Brazil may not be appropriate for the treatment of H. influenzae meningitis.
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To describe patterns observed in the treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in several locations of five countries.
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Streptomyces spp. are aerobic, Gram-positive bacteria of the order Actinomycetales, known for their ability to produce antimicrobial molecules such as streptomycin. Pneumonia due to Streptomyces is considered to be rare and limited to immunocompromised patients. Streptomyces spp. are only rarely associated with invasive systemic infections. To our knowledge, we report the first documented case of community-acquired Streptomyces atratus bacteremic pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient.
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The most common prophylactic antibiotics used were Cefazolin (41.9%), Cefoxitin (36.4%), and Augmentin (9.7%). Rate of single dose of cefazolin usage were not significantly different between the two groups (10.1% and 12.4% respectively, p = 0.482). However, the rate of postoperative oral antibiotic usage was significantly decreased (31.8% and 14.7% respectively, p = 0.001). The reduction of oral antibiotic usage was significant among staff only. The rate of postoperative infection between control and study groups, as well as between single and other antibiotic prophylaxis were similar. Had a single dose of cefazolin been administered to all patients, the antibiotics cost would have been reduced by 102,012 Baht or 91.8%.
ranmoxy 500 capsules during pregnancy
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is widely recognised as an important cause of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children. Pulmonary manifestations are typically tracheobronchitis or pneumonia but M. pneumoniae is also implicated in wheezing episodes in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals. Although antibiotics are used to treat LRTIs, a review of several major textbooks offers conflicting advice for using antibiotics in the management of M. pneumoniae LRTI in children.
Rearing of dogs and other pets has become increasingly popular in modern society. Bacterial flora resides within the nasal and oral cavities of dogs and when chanced, can be pathogenic. Certain similarities between humans and dogs portends dangerous behavioral habits that could lead to zoonotic disease transmission. This study was aimed at isolation, identification and antibiotic profiling of bacteria from nasal swabs of apparently healthy dogs. The zoonotic risk was also considered.
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Randomized, controlled study.
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Although polymicrobial infections, such as peri-implantitis or periodontitis, were postulated in the literature to be caused by synergistic effects of bacteria, these effects remain unclear looking at antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study is to compare the antibiotic susceptibilities of pure cultures and definite cocultures.