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Connections among biochemical pathways should help buffer organisms against environmental stress and affect the pace and trajectory of genome evolution. To explore these ideas, we studied consequences of inactivating the gene for polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) in strains of Helicobacter pylori, a genetically diverse gastric pathogen. The PPK1 enzyme catalyzes synthesis of inorganic polyphosphate (poly P), a reservoir of high-energy phosphate bonds with multiple roles. Prior analyses in less-fastidious microbes had implicated poly P in stress resistance, motility, and virulence. In our studies, ppk1 inactivation caused the expected near-complete absence of poly P (>250-fold decrease) but had phenotypic effects that differed markedly among unrelated strains: (i) poor initial growth on standard brain heart infusion agar (five of six strains tested); (ii) weakened colonization of mice (4 of 5 strains); (iii) reduced growth on Ham's F-12 agar, a nutritionally limiting medium (8 of 11 strains); (iv) heightened susceptibility to metronidazole (6 of 17 strains); and (v) decreased motility in soft agar (1 of 13 strains). Complementation tests confirmed that the lack of growth of one Deltappk1 strain on F-12 agar and the inability to colonize mice of another were each due to ppk1 inactivation. Thus, the importance of ppk1 to H. pylori differed among strains and the phenotypes monitored. We suggest that quantitative interactions, as seen here, are common among genes that affect metabolic pathways and that H. pylori's high genetic diversity makes it well suited for studies of such interactions, their underlying mechanisms, and their evolutionary consequences.
Histological intestinal spirochetosis appears to be relatively uncommon in Catalonia (Spain) compared to previous reports from other countries, but was identified in patients (0.7%) with chronic watery diarrhea. Sustained clinical recovery after spontaneous or drug-induced spirochetal disappearance in these individuals suggests that intestinal spirochetosis may play a pathogenic role in chronic watery diarrhea. Treatment with metronidazole is advisable in patients with persistent symptoms.
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A total of 293 patients were randomized to the two groups. Incisional surgical-site infection rates were 11.0% (90% confidence interval 7.0-16.3%) for both groups. The relative risk of subcuticular suture was 1.00 (0.58-1.73, one-tail P = .57). Interrupted subcuticular suture was noninferior to interrupted transdermal suture (P = .0088). Throughout 6 months after operation, patients expressed a significant preference for the subcuticular suture technique, noting rapid relief from pain, decreased vascularity, and smaller width, although the procedure took twice as long.
We constructed a decision-analytic model comparing 4 treatment strategies for first-line treatment of recurrent CDI in a population with a median age of 65 years: metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin, and fecal microbiota transplant (FMT). We modeled up to 2 additional recurrences following the initial recurrence. We assumed FMT delivery via colonoscopy as our base case, but conducted sensitivity analyses based on different modes of delivery. Willingness-to-pay threshold was set at $50 000 per quality-adjusted life-year.
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To investigate whether acid suppression therapy influences the absorption of bismuth from colloidal bismuth pectin (CBP).
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To evaluate the effectiveness of metronidazole in combination with corticosteroids in enema and mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) in comparison with the same protocol without metronidazole in the treatment of chronic radiation proctitis.
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The prevalence of primary H pylori resistance in Canada appears to be 18% to 22% for metronidazole and less than 4% for clarithromycin. These rates appear to be consistent across the different regions studied in Canada, but many regions have not been studied.
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Entamoeba histolytica meningoencephalitis has not been described in the modern literature, which is distinct from that caused by free-living amoebae. We report the first case of E. histolytica meningoencephalitis without liver or brain abscesses. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed 2 + very motile trophozoites. Our patient was successfully treated with intravenous metronidazole.
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Cure rate of H. pylori infection under classic triple therapy remains unaffected by dose reduction of tetracycline but not of metronidazole. In countries with a high prevalence of metronidazole resistance, such as Iran, higher doses of metronidazole are probably needed to increase the cure rate of bismuth triple therapy.
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Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is recommended as the first-line therapeutic concept for reliable long-term prevention of duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse. Current treatment regimens vary in efficacy, complexity, and compliance. To assess the efficacy of pantoprazole in H. pylori eradication in parallel groups of patients using two eradication regimens.