Imipenem, ceftriaxone and cefazolin significantly reduced adhesion formation (p<0.001) with significantly reduced fibrosis scores (p=0.013). Adhesion formation was greatest in the metronidazole treatment group. The breaking force of adhesions was significantly reduced in Groups 4 and 5 (p<0.001). Although, the inflammation scores were similar between groups (p=0.058), grade 3 inflammation scores were only seen in control, saline and metronidazole-treatment groups.
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Of 609 reports of bone marrow evaluations performed during the study period, 34 (5.6%) had evidence of bone marrow necrosis. Nine dogs had no evidence of associated diseases or drug or toxin exposure, and 25 dogs had associated disease conditions or drug exposures. All 9 dogs with idiopathic bone marrow necrosis were anemic (mean Hct, 14%), but only 3 had neutropenia, and 3 had thrombocytopenia. All 9 had myelofibrosis. Of the 25 dogs with associated disease conditions or drug exposures, only 14 (56%) had anemia (mean Hct, 33%). In addition, 14 (56%) had neutropenia and 18 (72%) had thrombocytopenia. Only 10 (40%) had myelofibrosis.
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The average duration of antibiotic therapy was 7.0 +/- 1.0 days. Ninety five percent of respondents selected amoxicillin as the first choice antibiotic in patients with no medical allergies, alone (34%) or associated to clavulanate (61%). The first drug of choice for patients with an allergy to penicillins was clindamycin 300 mg (65%), followed by azithromycin (15%) and metronidazole-spiramycin (13%). For cases of irreversible pulpitis, 86% of respondents prescribed antibiotics. For the scenario of a necrotic pulp, acute apical periodontitis and no swelling, 71% prescribed antibiotics. Almost 60% of respondents prescribed antibiotics for necrotic pulps with chronic apical periodontitis and a sinus tract; in this clinical situation, odontologists prescribed more frequently antibiotics compared to stomatologists (P = 0.0080; odds ratio = 8.0; C. I. 95% = 1.7-37.1).
We tested the antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori isolates from biopsy specimens from 2063 of 7791 (26%) patients attending for endoscopy in Gloucester and Bangor, and 339 biopsy specimens sent to the Helicobacter Reference Unit (HRU) in London. Culture and susceptibility testing was undertaken in line with National and European methods.
The pregnant patient with inflammatory bowel disease presents a number of challenges to the clinician. In addition to the management of the patient's disease activity and the potential effects of disease on pregnancy, the clinician must also take into consideration any iatrogenic complications that may arise from the medical management of these conditions. Furthermore, should the patient elect to breastfeed her infant, the effect of drugs that may be passed through the breast milk must also be considered. This article focuses specifically on the issues of drug transfer to the fetus and to the breastfeeding infant. Meperidine is the sedative of choice for endoscopic procedures on pregnant patients, while benzodiazepines and propofol may be used with certain caveats. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and metronidazole are preferred if antibiotics are indicated for perianal Crohn's disease or pouchitis. The majority of medications used in the treatment of luminal IBD in pregnancy are not associated with significant adverse effects, and thus can generally be used safely. Certain medications, such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and cyclosporine, appear low risk, while others such as methotrexate and thalidomide are clearly contraindicated. The role of other immunomodulators and biologics remains to be clearly defined, although early experience with infliximab and similar agents appear to be low risk. Safety in breastfeeding varies considerably among medications. There are many issues to address when considering pharmaceutical intervention in the pregnant patient, and patients should be carefully counseled regarding potential teratogenicity or adverse outcomes of medication used during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
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To assess the susceptibility of 100 isolates of Bacteroides spp. recovered in a major Costa Rican hospital between 2000 and 2008 to several ß-lactams, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and metronidazole.
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Anastomoses were ileocolic in 29.7%, colicocolic in 61.7% and colorectal in 14.8% cases. Anastomotic failure was seen in 4.2% and wound infection in 8.5% cases. There was one mortality (2.1%) due to unrelated cause.
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The third molars in 26 adults were evaluated by cultures with nonselective media and with selective media containing amoxicillin, pristinamycin, spiramycin, metronidazole, and spiramycin plus metronidazole.
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The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections are increasing, and there is a need to optimize the prevention of complicated disease.