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The accumulation of lipid-body-positive [lipid-rich (LR)] cells was followed using cell staining and flow cytometry. LR cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) were separated from non-lipid-body-containing [lipid-poor (LP)] cells and their MBCs determined. We also compared the MBCs for LR and LP cells from 'old' and 'young' cultures.
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BCG chorioretinitis is a rare complication that can be seen after intravesical BCG therapy. BCG is a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis. Two mechanisms can be proposed as the origin of ocular inflammation: a local immune response or a direct choroidal mycobacterial infection.
Platinum complexes with N,N'-bis(1-hydroxybut-2-yl)ethylenediamine, [PtCl2(ethambutol)] were prepared and the biological activity of three isomers [with (-), (+) and (+/-) ethambutol, respectively] investigated. All species interact with the Bam HI and Ava I recognition sequences showing a binding preference for GC rich sequences of DNA. The complex which showed the greatest interaction with adjacent guanines, [PtCl2[+/-)ethambutol)] was also found to be the most mutagenic of the three. On the other hand, only [PtCl2[+)ethambutol)] had a considerable antitumour activity against both P388 leukaemia and Lewis lung carcinoma, and this was not correlated either with restriction enzyme blocking activity or with mutagenicity.
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Pulmonary MAC disease patients from 2010 to 2012 were divided into two groups, those who received LVFX together with CAM (LVFX group) and those who received CAM without LVFX (control group). The number of patients who showed improvement was evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the start of therapy based on bacteriological examination (culture and smear examination) and the bacilli negative conversion rate.
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the GenoType(®) MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays to detect resistance to first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs in the context of a nationwide screening programme in the Netherlands.
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Because TB drug resistance may increase rapidly in HIV-infected populations, a second survey was undertaken in 1999 to determine any increase in anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.
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With the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) disease in the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United States, multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB emerged as a serious challenge to TB control. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1993 added drug susceptibility test results to the information collected for the national surveillance system to monitor trends in drug resistance.
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We explored suitability of a rat tuberculosis aerosol infection model for investigating the pharmacodynamics of new antimycobacterial agents. Infection of rats via the aerosol route led to a reproducible course of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs. The pulmonary bacterial load increased logarithmically during the first six weeks, thereafter, the infection stabilized for the next 12 weeks. We observed macroscopically visible granulomas in the lungs with demonstrable acid-fast bacilli and associated histopathology. Rifampicin (RIF) at a dose range of 30 to 270 mg/kg exhibited a sharp dose response while isoniazid (INH) at a dose range of 10 to 90 mg/kg and ethambutol (EMB) at 100 to 1000 mg/kg showed shallow dose responses. Pyrazinamide (PZA) had no dose response between 300 and 1000 mg/kg dose range. In a separate time kill study at fixed drug doses (RIF 90 mg/kg, INH 30 mg/kg, EMB 300 mg/kg, and PZA 300 mg/kg) the bactericidal effect of all the four drugs increased with longer duration of treatment from two weeks to four weeks. The observed infection profile and therapeutic outcomes in this rat model suggest that it can be used as an additional, pharmacologically relevant efficacy model to develop novel antitubercular compounds at the interface of discovery and development.
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Mycobacterium marinum was isolated for the first time in Denmark from skin granuloma of a 37-year-old man. The skin lesion was provoked by an injury from the broken glass of an aquarium used for tropical fish. Treatment with rifampicin and ethambutol was successful. At the time of diagnosis, M. marinum was also isolated from a dead fish; but in no case was skin granuloma found among purchasers of fish supplied by the patient.