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The MRSA status of patients during 777 in-patient episodes was prospectively recorded during three time spans; period 1 (November 2002-April 2003) before the change in isolation and antibiotic policy and, periods 2 (August-December 2003) and 3 (October 2004-January 2005) after the change in policy.
The results indicated that both antibiotics had high--almost 99% effectiveness at the post therapy visit. On the follow up visit an increased tendency of relapses was observed in the amoxicillin/clavulanate treated group, compared to cefaclor treated group (8.33% vs 3.29%). Relative risk of relapse in patients treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate was 2.6 greater compared to cefaclor. There were significantly higher rates of gastrointestinal adverse events in group treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (29/97 patients; 29.89%) compared to cefaclor (16/95 patients; 16.84%) - p< 0.03. Frequency of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups.
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The studies aimed at analysing the resistance to some beta-lactam antibiotics among E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates and at evaluating. The extended spectrum of beta-lactamases (ESBL) production in the isolates. The analysis included 137 E. coli strains and 52 K. pneumoniae strains, isolated from hospitalized patients and out-patients treated in the first trimester of 1998. The strains were identified using the ATB computer system. Antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates was determined by disc-diffusion tests. ESBL production capacity of E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains was estimated by double-disc and ATB BLSA tests. Most of the analysed E. coli strains were found to exhibit significant sensitivity to compound penicillin preparations containing beta-lactam inhibitor (Augmentin, Tazocin) and to the third generation cefalosporins, in contrast, K. pneumoniae strains much more frequently were resistant to the drugs. Among the obtained isolates, 3 (2.2%) E. coli strains and 21 (40.4%) K. pneumoniae strains produced ESBL but all the isolates proved sensitive to imipenem. In evaluation of ESBL production-detecting tests, the double-disc test was found to be more reliable than ATB BLSA test.
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A randomized controlled trial was designed to compare antibiotic prophylaxis with a standard combination of agents, metronidazole and gentamicin, with a single preparation, amoxycillin/clavulanate in 400 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. There were 41 patients who were excluded or withdrawn (wrong dose, inappropriate operation, established sepsis or concurrent disease). Abdominal wound sepsis occurred in 14% of the assessable patients in the amoxycillin/clavulanate group and in 15% of the metronidazole plus gentamicin group. Perineal sepsis occurred in 27% of the amoxycillin/clavulanate group with a perineal wound compared with 18% in the metronidazole plus gentamicin group. Intra-abdominal abscess occurred in 8% of those who received amoxycillin/clavulanate compared with 6% of those given metronidazole plus gentamicin. Only two patients in each group developed septicaemia. Postoperative diarrhoea occurred in 11 patients receiving amoxycillin/clavulanate compared with four given metronidazole plus gentamicin. Clostridium difficile was not isolated from the stool cultures in any of these cases. Thirteen of the 164 abdominal or perineal wounds were infected by 15 strains of Bacteroides spp. in the group receiving amoxycillin/clavulanate compared with only three of the 165 wounds in those given metronidazole plus gentamicin. (P less than 0.01). There was no other significant difference in the pattern of isolates between the groups.
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Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in clinical practice and empirical treatment is largely employed due to predictability of pathogens. However, variations in antibiotic sensitivity patterns do occur, and documentation is needed to inform local empirical therapy. The current edition of the Uganda Clinical Guidelines recommends amoxicillin or cotrimoxazole as choice drugs for empirical treatment of community-acquired UTI. From our clinical observations, we suspected that this recommendation was not effective in our setting. In order to examine validity, we sought to identify bacteria from community-acquired infections and determine their susceptibility against these antibiotics plus a range of potentially useful alternatives for treatment of UTI.
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To evaluate costs, clinical consequences, and cost-effectiveness from a German and French health-care system perspective of sequential i.v./po moxifloxacin monotherapy compared to co-amoxiclav with or without clarithromycin (AMC +/- CLA) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who required parenteral treatment.
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NTHI readily formed a biofilm on Nasopore. Treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate alone mediated an increase in biomass by 92% to 6.63 μ(2) /μ(3) compared to incubation in sterile medium alone (3.46 μ(2) /μ(3)). Treatment with anti-IHF alone reduced the biomass by 77% to 1.29 μ(2) /μ(3) compared to incubation with naïve rabbit serum (5.53 μ(2) /μ(3)). Anti-IHF + amoxicillin/clavulanate reduced biomass by 88% to 0.66 μ(2) /μ(3) (P <0.02) compared to incubation with naïve rabbit serum.
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We treated a 5-year-old girl and a 6-year-old boy with acquired Brown's syndrome associated with pansinusitis. In both patients, the diagnosis was established roentgenographically, and the patients were treated with oral antibiotics. Systemic corticosteroids were used in one case, although their clinical value was uncertain. Patients presenting with acute-onset Brown's syndrome of undetermined cause should undergo computed imaging of the orbits and paranasal sinuses.
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In this randomized, multicenter, observer-blind study, the efficacy, safety and tolerability of amoxycillin/clavulanate and cefaclor were compared in children with a clinical diagnosis of acute otitis media. Patients aged between 1 and 12 years received either amoxycillin/clavulanate (250 mg/62 mg t.i.d., or 125 mg/31 mg t.i.d. if aged under 6 years) or cefaclor (250 mg t.i.d., or 125 mg t.i.d. if aged under 6 years) for 7 days. The amoxycillin/clavulanate regimen was based on a dose of 20/5 mg/kg/day (representing 20 mg amoxycillin plus 5 mg clavulanic acid) in three divided doses. Patients were followed-up at the end of therapy and on days 10-12 and 38-40. At the end of the study (days 38-40), clinical success rates were 91.4% for amoxycillin/clavulanate and 78.6% for cefaclor. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.008). After the 7 days of treatment, 3 patients (2.9%) in the amoxycillin/clavulanate group had clinical failure, compared with 18 patients (16.1%) in the cefaclor group (p < 0.001). Both treatments were well tolerated and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in adverse event profiles. The incidence of diarrhea was low (7.0% amoxycillin/clavulanate, 8.4% cefaclor) and was generally of mild or moderate intensity. The study demonstrated that amoxycillin/clavulanate was significantly more effective clinically than cefaclor in the treatment of acute otitis media in children.
The postoperative pain score was lower in Group I as compared to Group II (p=0.001) and III (p=0.045), and it was statistically significant. There was no significant difference regarding postoperative pain scores between Group II and Group III patients (p=0.356).