Total dispensing data from local pharmacies for the months of June to October in 2000 and 2001, covering the six antibiotics considered most likely to be used for URTIs (amoxycillin, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor, doxycycline, erythromycin and roxithromycin).
In our randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study, 28 patients with the confirmed diagnosis of MS [61% relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS), 32% secondary chronic-progressive MS (SP-MS) and 7% primary chronic progressive MS (PP-MS)] were treated over a time period of 12 months with three cycles of a 6-week oral antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin (300 mg per day) or placebo.
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The study group included 42 patients (23 females, 19 males, mean age 64 +/- 3.5 yr). In 39 cases (93%) bacterial dermohypodermitis was located on the lower limb with a potential skin portal in 36 cases (86%). Sample culture, direct immunofluorescence or serology findings demonstrated presence of streptococci in 33 cases (79%). Nasal, intergluteal or potential portal were identified in 19 patients (45%) including 16 with demonstrated presence of streptococci. The rate of cure after oral pristinamycin did not vary significantly between carriers (79%) an non-carriers (91%) of Staphylococcus aureus. Drainage of a localized abscess was successful in 5 of 6 patients after initial failure of antibiotic treatment; 4 of them were carriers of S. aureus.
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Specimens were collected from 6161 subjects in seven centers and examined by the Gen-Probe method.
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The removal of seven pharmaceuticals and two fragrances in the biological units of various full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied. The observed removal of pharmaceuticals was mainly due to biological transformation and varied from insignificant (<10%, carbamazepine) to>90% (ibuprofen). However, no quantitative relationship between structure and activity can be set up for the biological transformation. Overall, it can be concluded that for compounds showing a sorption coefficient (K(d)) of below 300 L kg(-1), sorption onto secondary sludge is not relevant and their transformation can consequently be assessed simply by comparing influent and effluent concentrations. The two fragrances (HHCB, AHTN) studied were mainly removed by sorption onto sludge. For the compounds studied, comparable transformation and sorption was seen for different reactor types (conventional activated sludge, membrane bioreactor and fixed bed reactor) as well as for sludge ages between 10 and 60-80 days and temperatures between 12 degrees C and 21 degrees C. However, some significant variations in the observed removal currently lack an explanation. The observed incoming daily load of iopromide and roxithromycin in medium-sized municipal wastewater treatment plants (up to 80,000 population equivalents) is generated by only a small number of patients: the consequences for representative 24h composite sampling are discussed. Generally, the paper presents a method for setting up mass balances for micropollutants over entire wastewater treatment plants, including an estimation of the accuracy of the quantified fate (i.e. removal by sorption and biological transformation).
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No statistically significant changes in the chemiluminescence response of the whole blood were noted following in vitro treatment with 0, 2, 10, 25, or 50 micrograms/ml of erythromycin, josamycin, miomycin, roxithromycin, and spiramycin. These results suggest that these macrolide antibiotics are unlikely to impair the phagocytizing abilities of human neutrophils, in agreement with previous findings indicating their lack of influence upon neutrophil chemotaxis.
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RP 59500 is a 30:70 mixture of RP 57669 and RP 54476. The activity of RP 59500 and its two components against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms was compared with that of clarithromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin and rokitamycin. RP 59500 inhibited 90% of erythromycin-susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci at less than or equal to 1 mg/L (range 0.06-2 mg/L). Both inducibly and constitutively-resistant strains of S. aureus, as well as strains resistant to rifampicin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, were inhibited. Streptococcus pyogenes, including erythromycin-resistant isolates, and group C and G streptococci were inhibited by 0.5 mg/L. Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci were inhibited by 1 mg/L. The MIC90 was 4 mg/L for Haemophilus influenzae and 1 mg/L for Moraxella catarrhalis. RP 59500 did not inhibit Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The activity of RP 59500 against streptococci was less than that of the four other macrolides. Clostridium perfringens strains were highly susceptible, as were Bacteroides spp. RP 59500, when combined with ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime or gentamicin, did not have altered activity against susceptible species or alter the activity of the other component of the combination against susceptible species. MBCs in serum were increased two- to four-fold for S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and S. aureus, compared with MBCs in broth, but RP 59500 was as active at pH 6 as at pH 7, and there was not an appreciable inoculum effect. RP 59500 has potential use as an agent against inducibly and constitutively erythromycin-resistant isolates of Gram-positive species and selected anaerobic organisms.
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We investigated the activity of roxithromycin (RU 965) and gamma interferon alone and in combination in a murine model of toxoplasmic encephalitis. Roxithromycin at a dosage of 35 or 50 mg per mouse per day decreased mortality. Gamma interferon alone significantly prolonged time to death. When combined, the two agents were remarkably synergistic.