The National Prescribing Service Ltd (NPS) aims to improve prescribing and use of medicines consistent with evidence-based best practice. This report compares two statistical methods used to determine whether multiple educational interventions influenced antibiotic prescription in Australia.
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The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of these mycoplasma species is often crucial for optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected outpatients.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the potential drug-drug interaction between Bencycloquidium bromide (BCQB) and paroxetine, and between BCQB and roxithromycin.
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A 50-year-old patient with asthma for three years presented with arthritis and mononeuritis multiplex. Laboratory and radiological investigations revealed eosinophilia (64%), eosinophilic infiltrations of bone marrow, raised IgE-level, and transient pulmonary infiltrates. THERAPY AND DEVELOPMENT: Intravenous steroid therapy was started and resulted in normalization of eosinophilia, IgE-level, and asthmatic symptoms. The neurologic deficits showed only a weak tendency for improvement.
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A 9-year-old female developed facial papules and pustules since four years. Clinically, perioral dermatitis was suspected. Different topical therapy regimens and systemic anibiotics had been unsuccessful and a skin biopsy showed granulomatous (lupoid) rosacea. Only systemic antibiotic treatment with minocyclin led to healing of the skin lesions. While granulomatous rosacea-like dermatitis is more frequently diagnosed in adults, it is only rarely encountered in children where, in most of the cases, it represents a therapeutic challenge.
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A surveillance study which is a part of the international surveillance on pneumococci resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobial agents was conducted in Beijing, China. More than 900 pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections aged from six months to three years selected from two pediatric units were enrolled in the study. Perthroat swabs were immediately streaked onto blood agar plates. Isolates were identified as pneumococci by their typical appearance, gram stain, confirmation tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) determination according to Protocol and National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS).
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Emerging evidence suggests an association between some asthma and pulmonary infection by the atypical organisms Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, but a causal role for infection remains unproven and controversial. Most acute exacerbations of asthma are triggered by acute infections that are due to viral respiratory pathogens, not to bacteria or atypical organisms. Administration of antibiotics for acute exacerbations of asthma has been shown to be ineffective. Most evidence linking atypical infections to asthma is consistent with a promoting role for chronic infection in producing persistent asthma symptoms. Preliminary studies suggest that prolonged (>/=6 weeks) administration of doxycycline or macrolides may eradicate C. pneumoniae from respiratory secretions and improve long term, not acute, asthma symptoms. Randomised, controlled trials are currently under way to investigate the effectiveness of these prolonged courses of macrolides and azalides (roxithromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin) in adults with stable persistent asthma. Traditional courses (7 to 10 days) of any antibiotic are incapable of eradicating chronic C. pneumoniae or M. pneumoniae infection; furthermore, beta-lactam and sulphonamide-based antibiotics that are commonly prescribed in acute respiratory syndromes are ineffective against these atypical organisms. Unless the goal is to treat documented sinusitis associated with asthma, it is inappropriate to prescribe traditional courses of any antibiotic for acute asthma exacerbations; whether longer courses of antibiotics should be prescribed to eradicate chronic atypical infections and decrease persistent asthma severity remains to be established.
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Erythromycin (PubChem CID 12560); Azithromycin (PubChem CID: 447043); Clarithromycin (PubChem CID: 84029); Roxithromycin (PubChem CID: 5480431).
Forty-one patients with impetigo and 31 patients with infected skin reactions were included. Staphylococcus infection alone was identified in most patients (68 p. 100) in the impetigo group. Exfoliatine-producing strains were strongly associated with Staphylococcus-induced bullous and non-bullous impetigo (93 p. 100) compared with other origins (impetigo with streptococcal infection or infected skin reactions). Resistance to macrolides was high (erythromycin 41 p. 100, fusidic acid 42 p. 100) for all isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus.