Roxithromycin in two dosage regimens was compared with erythromycin in the therapy of 227 patients with throat infectious due to Streptococcus pyogenes. All three groups had the same clinical efficacy but roxithromycin 300 mg daily was less effective than erythromycin 500 mg qds in eradicating S. pyogenes while there were less antibiotic-related side effects with roxithromycin 150 mg bd than with erythromycin.
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The morphologic changes from bacillary to coccoid forms of Helicobacter pylori were studied. These form changes were analyzed by bacterial growth in Brucella broth plus 2% fetal calf serum. The coccoid forms were observed at five days of incubation and a rapid decrease of CFU/ml was recorded. At two weeks of microaerophilic incubation, all coccoid forms observed were not culturable in vitro. The coccoid morphology was observed earlier when the culture of H. pylori was incubated in aerobic conditions and with subinhibitory concentrations of omeprazole and roxithromycin. To evaluate the possibility of resistance of coccal forms, before plating, the cultures were heated to 80 C for 10 min and sonicated. In the absence of these treatments the cultures did not show growth in vitro. The proteic patterns of the same strains of two different morphologies were studied revealing significant differences.
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The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin, and penicillin were tested against 61 clinical isolates of C. trachomatis on 6 serovars, and the MIC/MBC of azithromycin and ofloxacin at different points in time after antibiotic administration to infected cultures.
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Macrolides are regarded as the drugs of choice for the treatment of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) due to their favorable effects on patient outcomes. These drugs decrease sputum production, thereby improving pulmonary function. Moreover, these effects are independent of dosing with respect to clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin. The marked success of macrolides in this disease is a direct effect of impeding the inflammatory cascade. With their abilities to reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, ameliorate the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways, and reduce mucus secretion, macrolides are able to improve pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. Although prolonged use of macrolides raises concerns of increased adverse effects, data do not support such occurrences. With respect to concerns of resistance, it should be noted that in Japan, where macrolides are part of the treatment for DPB, these agents continue to be used effectively as antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the potential benefits of the immunomodulatory effects of macrolides in other conditions such as cystic fibrosis, chronic sinusitis, asthma, and chronic bronchitis are under investigation.
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This study investigated the effects of selected four pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, and roxithromycin) on the photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of Cyperus alternifolius in constructed wetlands (CWs). Moreover, the removal and kinetics of PhACs in CWs were evaluated to explore the related removal mechanisms. Results showed that C. alternifolius can uptake and withstand certain PhACs. The PhAC tolerance of C. alternifolius might be attributed to their capacity to maintain relatively normal photosynthetic activity and elevated antioxidative defense. CWs offered comparable or even higher removal efficiencies for the selected PhACs compared with conventional WWTPs. The removal of the target PhACs was enhanced in the planted CWs versus the unplanted CWs mostly because of plant uptake and rhizosphere effects. In particular, carbamazepine, which is considered the most recalcitrant of the PhACs, was significantly reduced (p<0.05). The removal of target PhACs fitted into two distinct periods. The initial fast step (within the first 2 h) was essentially attributed to the adsorption onto the CW medium surface. The subsequent slow process (2-12 h) closely followed first-order kinetics probably because of the interaction between microorganisms and plants. The obtained results indicate that C. alternifolius can phytoremediate PhAC-contaminated waters in CWs.
Results of the study confirm the suitability of the rapid broth micro dilution (MIC) method as a simple yet reliable method to assay for the drug susceptibility of nontuberculosis mycobacterium.
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To explore the effects of mycoplasma and chlamydia infections on tubal infertilityand to assess the antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of female urogenital, and consequently to guide clinical rational drug use.
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The in-vitro activity of azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, josamycin, midekamycin, roxithromycin and clindamycin against 674 Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, was determined by agar dilution, microdilution and agar diffusion with Mueller-Hinton medium according to the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) 58940 guidelines. The results obtained by regression analysis and the error-rate-bounded method of Metzler-DeHaan indicate that common interpretative criteria (breakpoints) for test discs may be assigned to susceptible/resistant Gram-positive strains for all antibiotics tested. The following tentative DIN values are suggested for 15 microg macrolide discs: for susceptible Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, an inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of > or = 26 mm at a corresponding MIC of < or = 2 mg/L; for resistant Gram-positive strains, an IZD of < or = 21 mm; for resistant Gram-negative strains, an IZD of < or = 19 mm at a corresponding MIC of > or = 8 mg/L. For Haemophilus influenzae only, breakpoints for azithromycin are suggested with IZDs of > or = 21 mm for susceptible and < or = 18 mm for resistant.