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Numerous observational studies suggest a benefit of short-term antimicrobial therapy for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis in immunocompetent patients, although its efficacy has not been proven in randomized clinical trials. A randomized clinical trial revealed that intermittent trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole treatment could decrease the rate of recurrence in high-risk patients. Intravitreal injection of clindamycin and dexamethasone was an acceptable alternative to the classic treatment for OT in a randomized clinical trial.
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In order to have their diagnoses verified, etiology determined and treatment evaluated, 64 patients with suspected acute salpingitis (AS) underwent laparoscopy during which specimens were taken. The patients were referred to groups of either a mild (16/64), a moderate (26/64), or a severe (22/64) form of salpingitis. They were then randomized to one of two groups for treatment with either doxycycline/bensylpenicillin-procain (DC/BP) or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ). The results were evaluated by second-look laparoscopy 3-6 months later when adhesions and tubal passage were looked for. Isolates from the cervix were culture positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in 36/64 (56%) (9/16 with a mild form, 13/26 with moderate form and 14/22 with a severe form of salpingitis). Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) was isolated from the cervix in 15/64 (23%) (5/16 with a mild form, 4/26 with a moderate form and 6/22 with a severe form of the disease). Oviductal cultures for CT were found in 12/64 (19%) (1/16 with a mild form, 4/26 with a moderate and 7/25 with severe form of salpingitis). Oviductal isolates for NG were found in 2/64 (13%) (2/16 from the group with a mild form of the disease). Second-look laparoscopy revealed totally occluded oviducts in two patients from the group with a severe form of salpingitis (one from each treatment group).
RA patients with two or three risk factors for PCP who are receiving biologic therapy can benefit from safe primary prophylaxis.
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Two physicians independently abstracted data and assessed the quality of studies using a validated scale for RCTs and 8 quality components for cohort studies.
Kluyvera Spp is an enterobacterium rarely isolated in medical microbiology, an opportunistic pathogen the clinical significance of which remains unclear. Four strains of Kluyvera Spp were isolated for the first time in the Ibn Rochd Teaching Hospital microbiology laboratory. These strains were isolated in hemocultures of four patients hospitalized in the same medical ward, at the same time, and presenting with bacteriemia. An antibiotic susceptibility study allowed identifying the wild phenotype in the first isolate, the three next isolates had acquired resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamycin, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin, and produced broad-spectrum betalactamase. The epidemiological investigation in the patients' environment made after isolating the fourth strain was negative. The four patients evolved uneventfully without antibiotic treatment. This raises the question of the real pathogenic capacity of these strains, their epidemic power, and their ability to acquire resistance.
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A 41-year-old lady was investigated by several hospital teams over a 5-year period. She initially presented with arthralgia but over time developed a myriad of signs and symptoms. Later, she was admitted for investigation of profound weight loss, anaemia and a rising C-reactive protein. Extensive gastrointestinal investigations were performed. Duodenal biopsy revealed microscopic evidence of villous blunting with prominent collections of macrophages within the lamina propria and submucosa. These changes were consistent with Whipple's disease and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction on the biopsy sample. Initiation of antibiotic therapy led to normalisation of inflammatory markers and marked clinical improvement. Even in younger female patients, this disease should always be considered.
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Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia may be a life-threatening opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients. Despite effective treatment with high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and steroids, morbidity is often severe and lethality remains high. New therapeutic approaches are therefore warranted. Caspofungin, a beta-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor, has shown activity against the cyst forms of P. jiroveci in experimental animal models. We here report our preliminary clinical experience with caspofungin as an additional drug to the standard trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole regimen.
Multisystemic, eosinophilic, epitheliotropic disease and intestinal lymphosarcoma were diagnosed in a Paso Fino mare that presented with anorexia and weight loss. The stomach, ileum, cecum, colon, pancreas, and lungs were infiltrated by large numbers of eosinophils forming prominent eosinophilic granulomas, as well as lymphocytes and plasma cells. Two jejunal masses composed of solid sheets of neoplastic lymphocytes were present. In contrast to the regions of inflammation, the infiltrates in these masses did not contain plasma cells, eosinophils, and eosinophilic granulomas. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic lymphocytes expressed CD3 but not CD20 or kappa and lambda light chains, supporting a diagnosis of T-cell lymphosarcoma. Concurrent diagnoses of hypereosinophilic syndrome and lymphosarcoma in this horse and several humans suggest that the multisystemic eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates were caused by the clonal proliferation of T-lymphocytes that secreted interleukin-5 triggering differentiation and activation of eosinophils.