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All isolates were characterized by spa typing, SCCmec typing, and detection of genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). Representative genotypes were also subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using VITEK2 and MicroScan.
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The study was conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of clindamycin after administration of two oral clindamycin HCl formulations. A new tablet preparation containing 600 mg clindamycin (Clinda-saar 600, test) was compared to a marketed capsule containing 300 mg clindamycin (Sobelin 300, reference). Both preparations revealed comparable in vitro dissolution profiles with high batch conformity and homogeneity. Twenty healthy male volunteers received single doses of 600 mg clindamycin (test: 1 tablet, reference: 2 capsules) in an open, randomized, two-period crossover design. Blood samples were drawn up to 14 h p.a. and clindamycin plasma concentrations were measured using a sensitive and specific HPLC-UV method. Pharmacokinetic characteristics were similar for both preparations, arithmetic mean values (standard deviation) were computed as: AUC(0-infinity) 12.2 (4.2) and 13.1 (4.6) microg x h/ml, Cmax 3.1 (0.8) and 3.4 (0.8) microg/ml, t(max) 0.83 (0.24) and 0.85 (0.34) h, t(1/2) 2.3 (0.4) and 2.3 (0.6) h for test and reference, respectively. Mean relative bioavailability (point estimate) was 93% for AUC and 91% for Cmax. 90% confidence intervals for AUC and Cmax were within the predefined bioequivalence acceptance limits. Bioequivalence of test and reference preparations could be demonstrated. Single doses of 600 mg clindamycin orally were well tolerated without relevant differences between both preparations.
An 81-year-old French man developed a subcutaneous infection despite antibiotic treatment combining clindamycin and metronidazole for chronic wound infection. A skin biopsy showed numerous polymorphonuclear cells and no bacteria, but a subcutaneous swab yielded numerous polymorphonuclear cells, a few Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative cocci, and Gram-positive rods. The Gram-positive rod sequence exhibited 99% sequence similarity with uncultured Pseudoclavibacter sp. [GenBank:EF419350] and 99% sequence similarity with uncultured Pseudoclavibacter sp. [GenBank:EF419347]. The genetic data and unique peptide profile of this Pseudoclavibacter-like isolate, determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, underscored its uniqueness.
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Drugs employed in the treatment of toxoplasmosis are reviewed. Until now no drugs able to completely eliminate older parasite cysts in tissue are available. Data in literature indicate as first choice treatment the combination of sulfadiazine (or triple sulfonamides) with pyrimethamine, which act synergistically against trophozoites. The efficacy of other drugs is not fully established. Pregnancy and some clinical situations require alternative treatments as spiramycin. While uncomplicated lymphoglandular forms in immunocompetent host do not require any therapy, vital-organ involvement and infection in immunosuppressed patients are urgent indications for treatment. The lack of availability in Italy of the most active drugs is stressed.
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A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing orthognathic surgery from October 2005 through April 2013 was performed. The outcome variable was SSI. The primary predictor variable was the antibiotic used for prophylaxis. The secondary predictor variables were patient demographics, such as age, gender, medical comorbidities, and smoking status; duration of surgery; wisdom teeth extractions; single-jaw or bimaxillary surgery; and type of surgery. Data also were gathered on the diagnosis of SSIs and the treatment to resolve these infections.
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A mouse model of staphylococcal sepsis was used to compare the efficacy of the bovine antimicrobial peptide BMAP-28, a compound of the cathelicidin family, with that of conventional antibiotics.
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A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and characterize C. difficile isolates from human stool and retail grocery meat samples. Human stool samples (n=317) were obtained from a clinical laboratory and meat samples (n=303) were collected from 8 retail grocery stores from October 2011 through September 2012 from Centre County of Pennsylvania and were examined for C. difficile. C. difficile was isolated from 16.7% of stool samples (n=317) and 6.9%, 11.5%, 14.5%, and 7.8% of beef (n=72), pork (n=78), turkey (n=76), and chicken (n=77) samples, respectively. Six different toxin gene profiles were detected in all human and meat isolates of C. difficile based on the presence or absence of toxin genes tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA and cdtB. Interestingly, 75.6% of the human C. difficile isolates lacked any deletion in the tcdC gene (139-bp), whereas a 39-bp deletion was observed in 61.3% of the C. difficile strains isolated from meat samples. C. difficile from meat samples were more susceptible to clindamycin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and metronidazole than C. difficile isolates from human samples. Twenty-five different ribotypes were identified in human and meat C. difficile isolates. In conclusion, significant genotypic and phenotypic differences were observed between human and meat isolates of C. difficile; however, a few C. difficile isolates from meat-in particular ribotypes 078, PA01, PA05, PA16, and PA22 with unique profiles (toxin gene, tcdC gene size and antimicrobial resistance profiles)-were similar to human C. difficile isolates.
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In Shanghai ermB-mediated cMLS(B) is the most prevalent phenotype in macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Primarily, the ermB gene was carried and spread horizontally by Tn1545.
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Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data. Risk ratios (RR) were estimated for dichotomous data and, when sufficient numbers of comparable trials were available, trials were pooled in a meta-analysis.
This study aimed at assessing the epidemiology and genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sciuri (MRSS) from different farm animal species.
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Antibiotics are among the most frequent causes of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR); patch testing may be an important tool in their evaluation and management. We assessed the role of patch testing as a diagnostic tool in non-immediate CADR to antibiotics, and evaluated cross-reactivity among them.