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Tonsillopharyngitis caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) is common in pediatric clinical practice. Standard penicillin therapy may be associated with poor compliance, penicillin tolerance in GABHS and microbial copathogenicity. Alternative treatments are available (e.g. oral cephalosporins), and data suggest that shorter courses of these agents may be effective.
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Children age 6 to 36 months with acute otitis media with effusion, diagnosed by tympanocentesis and microbiologic culture, were randomized to receive CAE (30 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 5 days) or A/CA 40 mg/kg/day in three divided doses for 10 days (A/CA-10). In French centers A/CA was given at 80 mg/kg/day in three divided doses for 8 days (A/CA-8). Patients were assessed 1 to 4 days after completing the course (posttreatment) and followed up at 21 to 28 days after completing the course.
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The aim of this multicentric, randomized, double blind study was to demonstrate that a 4-day treatment with pristinamycin 1 g bid was as efficient as a 5-day treatment with cefuroxime axetil 250 mg bid in adults presenting with an acute maxillary sinusitis.
Sperm were washed with Percoll and resuspended in HEPES-buffered human tubal fluid medium containing either amoxicillin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, nitrofurantoin monohydrate, doxycycline hyclate, cefuroxime axetil, or control medium.
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--Emergency department, Eye and Ear Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pa.
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As acknowledged by international CAP treatment guidelines, the combination of a third-generation cephalosporin and a macrolide is at least as efficacious as monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone with enhanced anti-pneumococcal activity, for hospitalized patients with moderate to severe CAP. Combined medication with a macrolide and third-generation cephalosporin may be preferred over fluoroquinolones as first-line therapy of hospitalized patients with CAP to minimize the development of multiresistant nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli.
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Five hundred ninety patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of 7 to 14 days of levofloxacin treatment with that of ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil in the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Patients received either intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin (500 mg once daily) or the comparative agents, parenteral ceftriaxone (1 to 2 g once to twice daily) and/or oral cefuroxime axetil (500 mg twice daily). Erythromycin or doxycycline could be added to the comparator arm at the investigator's discretion. The decision to use an intravenous or oral antimicrobial agent for initial therapy was made by the investigator. Clinical and microbiological evaluations were completed at the baseline, during treatment, 5 to 7 days posttherapy, and 3 to 4 weeks posttherapy. Four hundred fifty-six patients (226 given levofloxacin and 230 administered ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil) were evaluable for clinical efficacy. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were isolated in 15 and 12%, respectively, of clinically evaluable patients. One hundred fifty atypical pathogens were identified: 101 were Chlamydia pneumoniae, 41 were Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and 8 were Legionella pneumophila. Clinical success at 5 to 7 days posttherapy was superior for the levofloxacin group (96%) compared with the ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil group (90%) (95% confidence interval [CI] of -10.7 to -1.3). Among patients with typical respiratory pathogens who were evaluable for microbiological efficacy, the overall bacteriologic eradication rates were superior for levofloxacin (98%) compared with the ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil group (85%) (95% CI of -21.6 to -4.8). Levofloxacin eradicated 100% of the most frequently reported respiratory pathogens (i.e., H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae) and provided a >98% clinical success rate in patients with atypical pathogens. Both levofloxacin and ceftriaxone-cefuroxime axetil eradicated 100% of the S. pneumoniae cells detected in blood culture. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 5.8% of patients receiving levofloxacin and in 8.5% of patients administered ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil. Gastrointestinal and central and peripheral nervous system adverse events were the most common events reported in each treatment group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that treatment with levofloxacin is superior to ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil therapy in the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.
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This double-masked, multicenter, randomized clinical trial compared the efficacy and tolerability of cefuroxime axetil and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis. A total of 263 patients with acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of treatment with either cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily (n = 132) or amoxicillin/clavulanate 500/125 mg 3 times daily (n = 131). Patients' responses to treatment were assessed once during treatment (6 to 8 days after the start of treatment), at the end of treatment (1 to 3 days posttreatment), and at follow-up (26 to 30 days after cessation of treatment). Clinical success, defined as cure or improvement, was equivalent in the cefuroxime axetil and amoxicillin/ clavulanate groups at the end-of-treatment and follow-up assessments. Patients in both groups showed improvements in symptoms of acute sinusitis at the during-treatment visit. Treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than treatment with cefuroxime axetil (29% vs 17%), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events (23% vs 11%), particularly diarrhea. Two patients in the cefuroxime axetil group and 8 patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group withdrew from the study due to adverse events (P = 0.06). These results indicate that cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily is as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate 500 mg 3 times daily in the treatment of acute sinusitis and produces fewer gastrointestinal adverse events. cefuroxime axetil, amoxicillin/clavulanate, acute sinusitis.
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Sinusitis is a common disease. Most cases of acute sinusitis involve the maxillary sinus and occur after viral infections of the upper respiratory tract. The usual pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is also an important pathogen in children. Anaerobic infections are more common in chronic sinusitis. Fungi are frequently observed in granulocytopenic cancer patients but also can occur in apparently normal hosts. Many strains of H influenzae and M catarrhalis observed in patients with sinusitis produce beta-lactamases. Many antimicrobial regimens have proven successful in the treatment of sinusitis, including ampicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the tetracyclines, and cefuroxime axetil, but only the latter three drugs are active against most beta-lactamase-producing strains. Nosocomial sinusitis usually occurs in intensive care unit settings and is frequently associated with nasopharyngeal instrumentation. The pathogens observed in nosocomial sinusitis are gram-negative bacilli or staphylococci and frequently require therapy with broad-spectrum penicillins or cephalosporins, an aminoglycoside, or vancomycin.
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Faropenem medoxomil is the first oral penem in a new class of beta-lactam antibiotics. Faropenem medoxomil has excellent in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and other key pathogens implicated in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Clinical studies have demonstrated that, in the treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in adults, 7 days of treatment with faropenem medoxomil is as clinically and bacteriologically effective as 10 days of treatment with cefuroxime axetil. One study showed faropenem medoxomil to be superior to cefuroxime axetil. Overall, the safety profile of faropenem medoxomil is similar to that of most comparators. Specifically, the minimal impact of faropenem medoxomil on the gastrointestinal flora leads to less diarrhea and other adverse events than coamoxicillin-clavulanate. Faropenem medoxomil has almost no drug-drug interactions and little requirement for dosage adjustments in the typical acute rhinosinusitis population.