To investigate the temporal associations between Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) diagnoses in women at a large urban sexual health clinic and a major Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening laboratory in Victoria, Australia with Pap smear screening rates and the introduction of nitroimidazole treatments.
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At 6 weeks after beginning the study, local examination revealed the signs of anal fissure epithelialization in 5 (45.5%) of the 11 patients in the study group and in 3 (33.3%) of the 9 patients in the control one. At 12 weeks, fissure epithelialization and fistula obliteration were stated in 6 (54%) patients in the study group and in 3 (33%) of the 9 patients in the control group. At 12 weeks, PCDAI in the study and control groups was 2.00 and 4.44 scores (p = 0.01).
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Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, possesses the dithiol-containing redox proteins Trx (thioredoxin) and TrxR (Trx reductase). Both proteins were found to be covalently modified and inactivated by metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole drug that is commonly used to treat infections with microaerophilic protozoan parasites in humans. Currently, very little is known about enzymes and other proteins participating in the Trx-dependent redox network of the parasite that could be indirectly affected by metronidazole treatment. On the basis of the disulfide/dithiol-exchange mechanism we constructed an active-site mutant of Trx, capable of binding interacting proteins as a stable mixed disulfide intermediate to screen the target proteome of Trx in E. histolytica. By applying Trx affinity chromatography, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MS, peroxiredoxin and 15 further potentially redox-regulated proteins were identified. Among them, EhSat1 (E. histolytica serine acetyltransferase-1), an enzyme involved in the L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway, was selected for detailed analysis. Binding of Trx to EhSat1 was verified by Far-Western blot analysis. Trx was able to restore the activity of the oxidatively damaged EhSat1 suggesting that the TrxR/Trx system protects sensitive proteins against oxidative stress in E. histolytica. Furthermore, the activity of peroxiredoxin, which is dependent on a functioning TrxR/Trx system, was strongly reduced in metronidazole-treated parasites.
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Ivermectin 1% cream QD had favorable incremental cost-effectiveness when compared with metronidazole 0.75% cream BID and dominated azelaic acid 15% gel BID in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea in the United States. Therefore, ivermectin 1% cream QD may be a good first-line treatment for papulopustular rosacea, providing additional clinical benefit at no or low additional cost.
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Hb levels, serum iron, serum ferritin were lower and TIBC was higher in H. pylori-infected cases than negative ones. The average rise of Hb in cases negative to H. pylori was higher than those positive to H. pylori. After comparing response of cases infected with H. pylori to iron therapy before and after eradication of H. pylori, it was found that rise of Hb was higher after treatment than before eradication of H. pylori.
Pouchitis following restorative proctocolectomy is common. Inflammation proximal to the pouch, prepouch ileitis (PPI) has recently been described. Its incidence and implications are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of PPI at pouchoscopy and correlate this with symptoms, diagnosis, and outcome.
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The stationary phase of Clostridium difficile, which is associated with the symptoms of the diarrhoeal disease, is refractory to antibiotic killing. The aim of this study was to explore whether probiotic-derived reutericyclin and related synthetic analogues could kill stationary phase C. difficile at concentrations achievable in the gastrointestinal tract.
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The incidence of orbital cellulitis was 8.9 cases per year. The average age of patients was 18 years and the sex ratio 2.78 in favor of males. Patients were hospitalized for a mean of 11 days. The fever was often stopped at admission. All patients had violent retrobulbar pain, associated with inflammatory exophthalmos in 77.8% of cases, and ophthalmoplegia in 67.2%. Two cases of diplopia were noted; 57.5% had sinusitis. Streptococcus was the bacterium found most frequently. In hospital, all patients received three antibiotics (ampicillin, aminoglycoside, metronidazole) and prednisone. In 51.5% of the cases, surgical treatment was necessary. Progression was favorable in 55.88% of the cases. Three patients died and 18 cases of blindness were noted.
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Metronicazole plasma AUC((0- infinity )) and C(max) were significantly higher after diosmin pretreatment by (mean) 27% and 24%, respectively. However, time to reach peak concentration (t(max)) was not affected significantly. Urinary excretion of acid and hydroxy metabolites in urine was decreased significantly, while excretion of unchanged metronidazole was increased.
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A total of 111 patients were identified out of which 31 were diabetic. The organisms commonly isolated were Streptococcus species with submandibular space being the most common space involved in both the groups. The empirical antibiotic used was amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combined with metrogyl in 70.27% cases.
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We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Trials Register from inception to 26 January 2017. We also searched clinicaltrials.gov and clinicaltrialsregister.eu for ongoing trials.