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Prophylactic intranasal administration of the Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist flagellin protects mice against respiratory pathogenic bacteria. We hypothesized that TLR5-mediated stimulation of lung immunity might improve the therapeutic index of antibiotics for the treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae respiratory infections in mice. Intranasal administration of flagellin was combined with either oral administration of amoxicillin or intraperitoneal injection of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to treat S. pneumoniae-infected animals. Compared with standalone treatments, the combination of antibiotic and flagellin resulted in a lower bacterial load in the lungs and greater protection against S. pneumoniae dissemination and was associated with an early increase in neutrophil infiltration in the airways. The antibiotic-flagellin combination treatment was, however, not associated with any exacerbation of inflammation. Moreover, combination treatment was more efficacious than standalone antibiotic treatments in the context of post-influenza virus pneumococcal infection. Lastly, TLR5 signaling was shown to be mandatory for the efficacy of the combined antibacterial therapy. This report is the first to show that combining antibiotic treatment with the stimulation of mucosal innate immunity is a potent antibacterial strategy against pneumonia.
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Biofilms are microcolonies of microbes adherent to biotic and abiotic surfaces, often responsible for chronic infections and medical device contamination. Escherichia coli is one of the prevalent pathogens involved in uropathogenic infections and contamination of catheters. A biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis V9T14 was tested alone and in association with various antibiotics against a mature 24-h uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 biofilm. Biofilm was grown on polystyrene pegs of a Calgary Biofilm Device, providing a tool to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial agents. Antibiotics tested were ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tobramycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (19:1). Biosurfactant alone at the concentrations tested was not able to remove the adherent cells of the pre-formed biofilm. However, the difference between the effect of antibiotic alone and in combination with the biosurfactant was significant and exceeded 1log(10) (90%) reduction in most cases. Results of this study indicate that V9T14 biosurfactant in association with antibiotics leads to a synergistic increase in the efficacy of antibiotics in biofilm killing, and in some combinations leads to total eradication of E. coli CFT073 biofilm.
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The efficacy and tolerance of pentamidine aerosol were evaluated in the prophylaxis and therapy of murine Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. P. carinii pneumonia was induced in rats by corticosteroid immunosuppression. Pentamidine was administered three times weekly via a Bird micronebulizer. The actual amount of pentamidine inhaled was estimated by monitoring the ventilation of the rats during the aerosol administration. Pentamidine levels in blood, lung, liver and kidney samples were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography after completion of the treatment. Efficacy was evaluated by examination of lung imprints. In the prophylactic treatment, 4.8- and 8.6-mg/kg doses of aerosolized pentamidine administered three times weekly for 7 weeks were effective in preventing P. carinii pneumonia in 80 and 100% of the rats, respectively. In the therapeutic studies, a 14.6-mg/kg dose of aerosolized pentamidine administered three times weekly for 3 weeks was effective both in curing the pneumonia and in clearing P. carinii cysts in 70% of the rats. In the remaining animals, although the pneumonia was cured, the cysts persisted. A dose-dependent effect of the drug was demonstrated in both prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. High lung/kidney and lung/liver ratios of pentamidine levels were demonstrated and were associated with good clinical, biological, and histologic tolerance.
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The reasons for combining trimethoprim (TMP) with sulfonamides (SUL) are still mainly theoretical but are supported by results from experimental infections and treatment of specific pathogens in humans, such as Branhamella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Brucella, Nocardia asteroides and perhaps Bordetella pertussis and Chlamydia trachomatis. Addition of SUL to TMP confers a therapeutic advantage also in patients with complicated urinary tract infection but probably not in young women with acute cystitis. Conditions that may enable TMP-SUL synergy in vivo can be expected to occur only in occasional cases of infection due to staphylococci, streptococci, Haemophilus or enteric bacteria. This fact together with ethical problems and availability of alternative therapies make further evaluations of the clinical significance of the SUL component of TMP-SUL very difficult. Although the use of TMP alone has shown promise in exacerbations of chronic bronchitis the role of the SUL component in TMP-SUL treatment of infections outside the urinary tract remains to be defined in comparative clinical trials.
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In vitro susceptibility testing of Listeria monocytogenes most often reveals both ampicillin and penicillin as inhibitory as opposed to bactericidal with activity comparable to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Yet, the former two penicillins are more effective for Listeria meningitis than are the latter agents. Accordingly, we reassessed the bactericidal activity of agents used in listeriosis in order to determine in vitro methodology that would be more predictive of clinical outcome. We found that bactericidal activity for greater than 48 hr by either minimum inhibitory-minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC-MBC) testing or time-kill kinetic studies was the best predictor of clinical efficacy. This correlation may be due to Listeria being a slow-growing microorganism. In addition to ampicillin and penicillin, we found trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, and imipenem to exhibit bactericidal activity for 48 hr. For the first two agents, this is in agreement with the results of clinical experience.
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Meta-analysis of 27 published clinical drug trials, case series, and case reports involving P carinii pneumonia. Data extracted included underlying disease, primary antipneumocystis treatment, days of failed primary treatment, salvage regimen, use of systemic corticosteroids and antiretroviral drugs, and clinical outcome.
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We studied 21 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and presumed Pneumocystic carinii choroidopathy. The lesions were characteristically yellow to pale yellow in color, appeared at the level of the choroid, and were found in the posterior pole. They varied in size from 300 to 3,000 microns, initially increasing in number before treatment and eventually resolving after systemic antimicrobial therapy. Of the 21 patients, 18 (86%) had received inhaled pentamidine as prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia. Visual acuity and visual field testing showed little evidence of retinal destruction. Survival after the diagnosis of the choroidopathy ranged from two to 36 weeks. Pneumocystic choroidopathy offers an easily accessible clue to disseminated Pneumocystis infection. When comparing drugs for Pneumocystis prophylaxis, careful ocular examination can provide one indicator of the relative efficacy of protection against extrapulmonary disease.
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To evaluate the impact of an integrated TB-HIV programme on patient care and TB programme outcomes.
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Penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage, assessed in nasopharyngeal specimens collected at days 0, 5, 10, and 28; baseline risk factors for nonsusceptible pneumococcal carriage; and adherence to regimen, compared between the 2 groups.
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The testing of the newer therapeutic agents like fosfomycin will add on to therapeutics for UTI's.
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We conducted a randomized controlled trial of orally administered amifloxacin versus trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as treatments of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. Amifloxacin at a dosage of 200 mg twice a day appeared as safe and effective as TMP-SMX, but amifloxacin at 400 mg twice a day tended to cause adverse events more frequently than did TMP-SMX.