The outcome of treatment of 48 episodes of septicemia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 44 patients was assessed. Twenty-six of the patients died; nineteen of them died of infection, and infection was a major contributing factor to the deaths of the remaining seven patients. Fourteen of fifteen patients treated with inadequate antibiotic therapy died, and the other patient developed a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery, for which amputation was necessary. Eight of eleven patients treated with amikacin (alone or combined with another antimicrobial) died, and three recovered slowly; only one recovered fully without sequelae. In an additional two patients who failed to respond to amikacin, treatment was changed to vancomycin. Vancomycin was used to treat 18 episodes of MRSA septicemia in 17 patients. In 14 of these episodes the patients recovered fully. One patient died of uncontrolled infection, and in three, infection was a contributing factor but not the major cause of death. Vancomycin was confirmed as antibiotic of choice in treating MRSA septicemia.
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A 10-year-old male with acute leukemia presented with post-chemotherapy anemia. During red cell transfusion, he developed hemoglobinuria. Transfusion reaction workup was negative. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia was suspected because of positive direct antiglobulin test, negative eluate, and microspherocytes on smear pre- and post-transfusion. Drug studies using the indirect antiglobulin test were strongly positive with trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but negative with sulfamethoxazole. The patient recovered after discontinuing the drug, with no recurrence in 2 years. Other causes of anemia should be considered in patients with worse-than-expected anemia after chemotherapy. Furthermore, hemolysis during transfusion is not always a transfusion reaction.
Data from 41 patients, who received glucocorticoids with or without immunosuppressive agents and prophylactic use of TMP/SMX, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirteen patients were started on a daily dose of 10% of single-strength (SS) TMP/SMX, which was increased gradually (dose-escalation group), while 28 patients were started on 1 SS tablet daily (routine group).
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A retrospective study was conducted at Detroit Medical Center. For calendar year 2009, unique adults (age >18 years) with infections due to MRSA with an MIC to vancomycin of 2 μg/mL were included if they received 2 or more doses of TMP/SMX and/or daptomycin and/or linezolid. Data were abstracted from patient charts and pharmacy records.
A sustained elevation of creatinine (>20%, into abnormal range) was identified in 20 (18.6%) subjects treated with indinavir but not with other protease inhibitors. Creatinine elevation was associated with treatment duration of more than 54 weeks [odds ratio (OR), 7.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-27.7], low baseline body mass index < or = 20 kg/m2 (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.0-16.6), and use of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.5-13.8). Lower urinary specific gravity (P = 0.015), and leukocyturia (P<0.001) were frequently associated features of indinavir nephropathy. No patient developed severe renal impairment and abnormalities were reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. Complications (renal colic, or pain and dysuria) occurred after a mean of 36 weeks (95% CI, 23-48) of indinavir treatment in 13 subjects (12.3%), eight of whom (62%) presented elevated creatinine during follow-up. Only long-term exposure to TMP-SMX (>160 weeks) was identified as a potential risk for the occurrence of a clinical event (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.2-19.2).
Cost-effectiveness study including both direct and indirect costs alongside a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
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This observational study confirms current thinking that CTM prophylaxis is protective against LRTIs in HIV-infected children. However, because of a possible association between CTM prophylaxis and an increased risk of diarrhoea, HIV status of infants should be determined as early as possible in order to prevent unnecessary exposure of uninfected infants to CTM prophylaxis, while further studies to quantify both beneficial and adverse effects of CTM prophylaxis are undertaken.
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SGPT and SGOT concentrations rose to maximally 328 and 83 U/l, total bilirubin to maximally 5.9 mg/dl. There was no evidence for viral hepatitis (B or C, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr), autoimmune hepatitis or primary biliary hepatitis. Liver biopsy showed central acinar cholestasis, which suggested drug-induced liver damage.
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Emergence of trimethoprim resistance among urinary tract Escherichia coli strains, isolated mostly from long-term patients in the Turku City Hospital, Turku, Finland, was studied from 1971 through 1984. Emergence of resistance to trimethoprim was associated with changes in the consumption of both trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, with occurrence of high-level trimethoprim resistance and sequences homologous to trimethoprim resistance transposon Tn7. Since 1971, resistance of E. coli to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased from 8 to between 32 and 35% in 1983 and 1984; resistance to sulfamethoxazole varied from 39 to between 40 and 44%. The frequency of DNA sequence homology with our Tn7 probe among trimethoprim-resistant E. coli strains was 42% from 1980 to 1981 and 64% in 1983 (P less than 0.005). Fourteen years after the introduction of trimethoprim therapy in this hospital, resistance has reached the level of resistance to sulfonamide.
A 48-year-old man, on imatinib therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia, developed bilateral retino-choroiditis. Visual acuity was 20/100 and counting fingers at 2 m in both the right and left eye. Vitreous biopsy (left eye) revealed Toxoplasma gondii genome by polymerase chain reaction. Serum anti-toxoplasma IgG levels were significantly elevated. Blood counts were normal. Bcr-Abl/Abl transcript ratio was 0.016%. He was treated with oral co-trimoxazole, to which corticosteroids in tapering doses were added later. Imatinib therapy was continued. After 6 weeks of therapy, all retinal lesions regressed and vision improved to 20/30 and 20/40 in right and left eyes, respectively.