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Sulfatrim

Sulfatrim (generic name: Co-trimoxazole; brand names include: Septra / Ciplin / Septrin) is a combination of two antibiotics (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections.

Other names for this medication:
Bactiver, Bactrim, Bactron, Bactropin, Baktar, Balkatrin, Biotrim, Biseptol, Ciplin, Cotrim, Cozole, Deprim, Ditrim, Ectaprim, Eusaprim, Gantrisin, Globaxol, Kemoprim, Lagatrim, Primadex, Purbac, Resprim, Sanprima, Sepmax, Septra, Septran, Septrin, Soltrim, Sulfa, Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfametoxazol, Sumetrolim, Supreme, Sutrim, Tagremin, Trifen, Trimoks, Trimol, Trisul, Vanadyl

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Also known as:  Bactrim.

Description

Sulfatrim is effective in a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, renal and urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal tract infections, skin and wound infections, septicaemias and other infections caused by sensitive organisms.

Each Sulfatrim tablet contains 80 mg trimethoprim and 400 mg sulfamethoxazole.

Each Sulfatrim DS (double strength) tablet contains 160 mg trimethoprim and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole.

Dosage

Shake this medication well before each dose. Carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. Take this medication by mouth, as directed by your doctor, with a full glass of water (8 ounces / 240 milliliters). If stomach upset occurs, take with food or milk. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication to lower the unlikely risk of kidney stones forming, unless your doctor advises you otherwise. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.

For the best effect, take this antibiotic at evenly spaced times. To help you remember, take this medication at the same time(s) every day.

Continue to take this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping it too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a relapse of the infection.

Overdose

Often, no treatment is needed for an antibiotic overdose. Usually, you'll need to watch for stomach upset and possibly diarrhea. In those cases, you should give extra fluids.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 to 25 degrees C (68 to 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Sulfatrim are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Sulfatrim is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age.

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The outcome of treatment of 48 episodes of septicemia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 44 patients was assessed. Twenty-six of the patients died; nineteen of them died of infection, and infection was a major contributing factor to the deaths of the remaining seven patients. Fourteen of fifteen patients treated with inadequate antibiotic therapy died, and the other patient developed a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery, for which amputation was necessary. Eight of eleven patients treated with amikacin (alone or combined with another antimicrobial) died, and three recovered slowly; only one recovered fully without sequelae. In an additional two patients who failed to respond to amikacin, treatment was changed to vancomycin. Vancomycin was used to treat 18 episodes of MRSA septicemia in 17 patients. In 14 of these episodes the patients recovered fully. One patient died of uncontrolled infection, and in three, infection was a contributing factor but not the major cause of death. Vancomycin was confirmed as antibiotic of choice in treating MRSA septicemia.

sulfatrim antibiotic side effects

A 10-year-old male with acute leukemia presented with post-chemotherapy anemia. During red cell transfusion, he developed hemoglobinuria. Transfusion reaction workup was negative. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia was suspected because of positive direct antiglobulin test, negative eluate, and microspherocytes on smear pre- and post-transfusion. Drug studies using the indirect antiglobulin test were strongly positive with trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but negative with sulfamethoxazole. The patient recovered after discontinuing the drug, with no recurrence in 2 years. Other causes of anemia should be considered in patients with worse-than-expected anemia after chemotherapy. Furthermore, hemolysis during transfusion is not always a transfusion reaction.

sulfatrim antibiotic

Data from 41 patients, who received glucocorticoids with or without immunosuppressive agents and prophylactic use of TMP/SMX, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirteen patients were started on a daily dose of 10% of single-strength (SS) TMP/SMX, which was increased gradually (dose-escalation group), while 28 patients were started on 1 SS tablet daily (routine group).

sulfatrim pediatric suspension dosage

A retrospective study was conducted at Detroit Medical Center. For calendar year 2009, unique adults (age >18 years) with infections due to MRSA with an MIC to vancomycin of 2 μg/mL were included if they received 2 or more doses of TMP/SMX and/or daptomycin and/or linezolid. Data were abstracted from patient charts and pharmacy records.

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A sustained elevation of creatinine (>20%, into abnormal range) was identified in 20 (18.6%) subjects treated with indinavir but not with other protease inhibitors. Creatinine elevation was associated with treatment duration of more than 54 weeks [odds ratio (OR), 7.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-27.7], low baseline body mass index < or = 20 kg/m2 (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.0-16.6), and use of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.5-13.8). Lower urinary specific gravity (P = 0.015), and leukocyturia (P<0.001) were frequently associated features of indinavir nephropathy. No patient developed severe renal impairment and abnormalities were reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. Complications (renal colic, or pain and dysuria) occurred after a mean of 36 weeks (95% CI, 23-48) of indinavir treatment in 13 subjects (12.3%), eight of whom (62%) presented elevated creatinine during follow-up. Only long-term exposure to TMP-SMX (>160 weeks) was identified as a potential risk for the occurrence of a clinical event (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.2-19.2).

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Cost-effectiveness study including both direct and indirect costs alongside a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

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This observational study confirms current thinking that CTM prophylaxis is protective against LRTIs in HIV-infected children. However, because of a possible association between CTM prophylaxis and an increased risk of diarrhoea, HIV status of infants should be determined as early as possible in order to prevent unnecessary exposure of uninfected infants to CTM prophylaxis, while further studies to quantify both beneficial and adverse effects of CTM prophylaxis are undertaken.

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SGPT and SGOT concentrations rose to maximally 328 and 83 U/l, total bilirubin to maximally 5.9 mg/dl. There was no evidence for viral hepatitis (B or C, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr), autoimmune hepatitis or primary biliary hepatitis. Liver biopsy showed central acinar cholestasis, which suggested drug-induced liver damage.

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Emergence of trimethoprim resistance among urinary tract Escherichia coli strains, isolated mostly from long-term patients in the Turku City Hospital, Turku, Finland, was studied from 1971 through 1984. Emergence of resistance to trimethoprim was associated with changes in the consumption of both trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, with occurrence of high-level trimethoprim resistance and sequences homologous to trimethoprim resistance transposon Tn7. Since 1971, resistance of E. coli to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased from 8 to between 32 and 35% in 1983 and 1984; resistance to sulfamethoxazole varied from 39 to between 40 and 44%. The frequency of DNA sequence homology with our Tn7 probe among trimethoprim-resistant E. coli strains was 42% from 1980 to 1981 and 64% in 1983 (P less than 0.005). Fourteen years after the introduction of trimethoprim therapy in this hospital, resistance has reached the level of resistance to sulfonamide.

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A 48-year-old man, on imatinib therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia, developed bilateral retino-choroiditis. Visual acuity was 20/100 and counting fingers at 2 m in both the right and left eye. Vitreous biopsy (left eye) revealed Toxoplasma gondii genome by polymerase chain reaction. Serum anti-toxoplasma IgG levels were significantly elevated. Blood counts were normal. Bcr-Abl/Abl transcript ratio was 0.016%. He was treated with oral co-trimoxazole, to which corticosteroids in tapering doses were added later. Imatinib therapy was continued. After 6 weeks of therapy, all retinal lesions regressed and vision improved to 20/30 and 20/40 in right and left eyes, respectively.

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sulfatrim 800 160 mg 2017-11-16

Trimetrexate is a folinic acid analogue structurally related to methotrexate, whose primary mechanism of action is believed to be inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase. This reduces the production of DNA and RNA precursors and leads to cell death. Trimetrexate is lipophilic and can passively diffuse across cell membranes including those of Pneumocystis carinii and its mammalian host. To minimise toxicity, trimetrexate must be coadministered with calcium folinate (leucovorin calcium), a reduced folate coenzyme, which is transported Resteclin Capsules into, and protects, mammalian host cells but not P. carinii cells. In noncomparative trials trimetrexate was effective in the treatment of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients with AIDS who were intolerant of or refractory to cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) and pentamidine treatment. In these patients, 2- to 4-week survival rates of 48 to 69% were reported. In a comparative trial in the initial therapy of PCP, trimetrexate was less effective than cotrimoxazole in moderate to severe disease as evidenced by a significantly higher failure rate. Trimetrexate was better tolerated than cotrimoxazole when used in this setting, however. Significantly fewer patients receiving trimetrexate plus calcium folinate discontinued treatment because of adverse events than did patients receiving cotrimoxazole. The most common adverse effect associated with trimetrexate is myelosuppression (neutropenia and thrombocytopenia); this is mitigated by coadministration of calcium folinate and is generally reversible upon dosage reduction or discontinuation. Other adverse effects include increases in serum aminotransferase levels, anaemia, fever, rash/pruritus, and increased alkaline phosphatase or serum creatinine levels. Further research into the use of trimetrexate, including its efficacy as prophylaxis, in combination with other agents and as an oral formulation, is needed to clearly define its role in the treatment of PCP and to identify patients most likely to benefit. Currently, trimetrexate should be considered as an alternative treatment option in immunocompromised patients with moderate to severe PCP who have not responded to or are intolerant of first-line therapy.

sulfatrim pediatric dosage 2015-10-11

The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables. A total of 189 RTE vegetable samples (91 sprouts and 98 mixed salads) were collected in a retail market in South Korea from October 2012 to February 2013. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 10.1%. Of these, 94.7% were from the sprout samples. All isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, and many of the ESBL producers were also resistant to non-β-lactam antibiotics, including Antibiotico Fulgram Suspension gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin (73.7%, 63.2%, and 26.3% respectively). TEM-1, SHV-1, -2, -11, -12, -27, -28 and -61, and CTX-M-14, -15 and -55 β-lactamases were detected alone or in combination. The genetic platforms of all CTX-M producing isolates were ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-orf477 and ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-IS903 in CTX-M groups 1 and 9, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence and characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from RTE vegetables. The results of this study indicate that RTE vegetables, sprouts, in particular, may play a role in spreading antimicrobial resistant bacteria and ESBL genes to humans.

sulfatrim canine dosage 2015-09-28

Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 1993-2010 were used to assess the frequency of using methotrexate with Amoksiklav 625 Mg Dawkowanie TMP-SMX and associated physician specialties and diagnoses.

sulfatrim 400 80 mg 2015-05-08

Elderly patients living in nursing homes can easily find themselves unable to carry out their daily activities, once they become ill, even with infectious diseases of a slight to Para Que Sirve El Medicamento Denvar 400 Mg mild degree, and rapid treatment is required to cure them of their malaise. However, treatment is often difficult due to the presence of drug-resistant bacteria. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the selective use of antimicrobial agents based on a sensitivity test of isolated bacteria.

sulfatrim metro suspension 2017-06-16

We report a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) secondary to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-Sx) therapy for presumed community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection. Although the association between SJS/TEN and the sulfonamide class of antibiotics is well established, the increasing prevalence of CA-MRSA has left practitioners with limited regimens to effectively treat skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in the outpatient setting. In the case of SSTIs, alternative treatment of these infections should be considered, especially when the bacterial pathogen is unknown. Future investigations evaluating the efficacy of adjunctive antibiotics for purulent SSTIs and monitoring the incidence of SJS/TEN in the era of CA-MRSA are necessary to reduce unnecessary use of sulfonamide drugs. The potential development of Topcef Dose SJS/TEN, a severe life-threatening illness, emphasizes the need for judicious use of TMP-Sx and close monitoring and follow-up for patients who were given TMP-Sx for SSTIs.

sulfatrim guinea pig dose 2016-05-04

There were 322 (62.0%) males and 197 (38.0%) females. Their mean age was (67.7 ± 12.3) (30-93) years, duration of diabetes 10 (0-40) years, duration of lower-limb lesion 1.0 (0.0-72.0) months and HbA1c (9.09% ± 2.28%). Among 444 (85.5%) cases, a total of 754 strains of pathogens were isolated. Gram-positive aerobes were the most frequently isolated (47.3%, 357 strains) and followed by gram-negative aerobes and fungus (40.3% vs 12.3 Penicillin G Cephalexin %, 304 vs 93 strains respectively). With rising Wagner's grades, bacterial floras transformed from Gram-positive cocci to Gram-negative rods while fungus and composite infections increased. And 122 strains were of multi drug resistant organisms (MDRO). Among 357 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis were dominating floras. Staphylococcus was highly resistant to penicillin G, erythromycin, and oxacillin while vancomycin and linezolid were the most effective agents against gram-positive bacteria. Among 304 strains of gram-negative bacteria, enterobacteria were the most prevalent, including 48 strains of Escherichia coli, 34 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 31 strains of Proteus vulgaris. And there were 29 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Enterobacteria were highly resistant to ampicillin, followed by bactrim and furadantin while meropenem, imipenem, piperacillin/sulbactam, sulperazone and cefepime were the most effective agents. The predominant fungus was Blastomyces albicans.

sulfatrim urinary tract infection 2017-09-28

The study included 912 children, 482 (53%) with pneumonia and 430 (47%) controls. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli were seen in 79 (16%) of the 482 children with pneumonia and 51 (12%) of the 430 healthy controls. Nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli were seen in 85 (18%) of children with pneumonia and 54 (13%) of healthy controls. Neither gender, nutritional status, season, previous hospital admission nor antibiotic use was associated with carriage with gram-negative bacilli. However, pneumonia was associated with increased carriage, whereas concomitant colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae was associated with decreased carriage with gram-negative bacilli. Only 36% of all Escherichia species and 76% of all Klebsiella isolates were susceptible to Cefixime 2 X 200 Mg cotrimoxazole; 90% of all Acinetobacter species were susceptible to gentamicin.

sulfatrim medication 2015-12-18

A total of 278 alpha- and nonhemolytic streptococcal isolates (patients, n = 116; healthy adults, n = 162) were examined for susceptibility to 23 and 24 antimicrobial drugs with the Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion and the agar dilution method, respectively. Wilkins-Chalgren medium compared favorably with sheep blood Mueller-Hinton agar, the reference medium, for 58 representative streptococcal isolates. In terms of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), all 278 isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin and vancomycin. None of the isolates revealed high-level gentamicin resistance. All isolates were resistant to fusidic acid. Twelve Streptococcus mitis isolates, all from patients, were resistant to penicillin G and variably to other antibiotics. Oxacillin disks failed to predict penicillin G susceptibility. In general, patient isolates were more frequently resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones; conversely, isolates from healthy carriers were slightly more resistant to macrolide antibiotics. Specifically, susceptibility rates were: penicillin G 79.1%, oxacillin 87.8%, ampicillin 66.9%, piperacillin 98.2%, cefoxitin 76.6%, cefuroxime 96.8%, cefotaxime 98.6%, ceftriaxone 98.6%, cefepime 98.6%, impipenem 98.2%, ciprofloxacin 59.7%, ofloxacin 89.2%, doxycycline 65.8%, tetracycline 56.8%, clindamycin 87.8%, erythromycin 59%, clarithromycin 74.9%, chloramphenicol 98.9%, cotrimoxazole 97.9%, rifampin 97.5%, and fosfomycin 2.2%. On the basis of numerous minor discrepancies between disk diffusion and agar dilution test results for certain antibiotics, it is proposed that the current NCCLS Bronco Penamox 30 Mg inhibition zone (diameter, mm) criteria indicative of intermediate susceptibility of alpha- and nonhemolytic streptococci be changed for the following antimicrobial drugs: ampicillin = I = 22-27 mm; ciprofloxacin = I = 16-18 mm; clindamycin = I = 15-18 mm; doxycycline = I = 17-19 mm; tetracycline = I = 17-19 mm; erythromycin = I = 14-19 mm, and cotrimoxazole = I = 11-13 mm. It is recommended to exclude both cefoxitin and doxycycline (substitute = tetracycline) disks from test batteries for non-group A, B beta-hemolytic and alpha-/nonhemolytic streptococcal isolates.

sulfatrim brand 2016-02-16

To assess the effects of Levoxa 5 Mg routinely administered cotrimoxazole on death and illness episodes in children with HIV infection, and in infants of HIV infected mothers.

sulfatrim 160 mg 2015-05-04

Nineteen previously undescribed 2,4-diamino-6-(arylmethyl)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydroquinazolines (5a-m, 10-12) were synthesized as part of a larger effort to assess the therapeutic potential of lipophilic dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors against opportunistic infections of AIDS. Condensation of appropriately substituted (arylmethyl)triphenylphosphoranes with 4, 4-ethylenedioxycyclohexanone, followed by hydrogenation (H2/Pd-C) and acidolysis, yielded the corresponding 4-(arylmethyl)cyclohexanones, which were then condensed with cyanoguanidine to form the tetrahydroquinazolines. Three simple 2, 4-diamino-6-alkyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazoline model compounds (9a-c) were also prepared in one step from commercially available 4-alkylcyclohexanones by this method. Enzyme inhibition assays against rat liver DHFR, Pneumocystis carinii DHFR, and the bifunctional DHFR-TS enzyme from Toxoplasma gondii were carried out, and the selectivity ratios IC50(rat)/IC50(P. carinii) and IC50(rat)/IC50(T. gondii) were compared. The three most potent inhibitors of P. carinii DHFR were the 2,5-dimethoxybenzyl (5j), 3, 4-dimethoxybenzyl (5k), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl (5l) analogues, with IC50 values of 0.057, 0.10, and 0.091 microM, respectively. The remaining compounds generally had IC50 values in the 0.1-1.0 microM range. However all the compounds were more potent against the rat liver enzyme than the P. carinii enzyme and thus were nonselective. The T. gondii enzyme was always more sensitive than the P. carinii enzyme, with most of the analogues giving IC50 values of 0.01-0.1 microM. Moderate 5-10-fold selectivity for T. gondii versus rat liver DHFR was observed with five compounds, the best combination of potency and selectivity being achieved with the 2-methoxybenzyl analogue 5d, which had an IC50 of 0.014 microM and a selectivity ratio of 8.6. One compound (5l) was tested for antiproliferative activity against P. carinii trophozoites in culture at a concentration of 10 microgram/mL and was found to completely suppress growth over 7 days. The suppressive effect of 5l was the same as that of trimethoprim (10 microgram/mL) + sulfamethoxazole (250 microgram/mL), a standard clinical combination for the treatment of P. carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients. Four compounds (5a,h,k,l) were tested against T. gondii tachyzoites in culture and were found to have a potency (IC50 = 0.1-0.5 microM) similar to that of pyrimethamine (IC50 = 0.69 microM), a standard clinical agent for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Compound 5h was also active against T. gondii infection in mice when given qdx8 by peritoneal injection at doses ranging from 62.5 (initial dose) to 25 mg/kg. Survival was prolonged to the same degree as with 25 mg/kg clindamycin, another widely used drug against toxoplasmosis. Three compounds (5j-l) were tested for antiproliferative activity against human tumor cells in culture. Among the 25 cell lines in the National Cancer Institute panel for which data were confirmed in two independent experiments, the IC50 for at least two of these compounds was <10 microM against 17 cell lines (68%) and in the 0. 1-1 microM range against 13 cell lines (52%). One compound (5j) had an IC50 of <0.01 microM against four of the cell lines. The activity profiles of 5k,l were generally similar to that of 5j except that there were no cells against which the IC50 was <0.01 microM.

sulfatrim ds dose 2016-04-19

Consecutive sample of 255 young women including 216 with a bacteriologically documented urinary tract infection.

sulfatrim pediatric suspension dosage 2016-04-21

Forty-two patients suffering from acute or recurrent ENT infections were given either 250 mg erythromycin 4 X daily or a new sulfamethopyrazine/trimethoprim combination (200 + 250 mg) once daily after a double loading dose on the 1st day, for 12 days on the average. Otitis media and externa, perichondritis, maxillary and frontal sinusitis were the most frequent clinical pictures. Assessment of efficacy was based on the course of objective and subjective clinical symptoms and, whenever possible, on bacteriologic findings. The new sulfa-trimethoprim combination showed activity similar to the reference drug, but it may have the advantage of a simpler dosage schedule.