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Acute pneumonia was a common occurrence in HIV-infected children and was associated with long term mortality risk. Multiple episodes of acute pneumonia likely represent a marker of progressive disease and immunologic dysfunction rather than being causally associated with increased long term mortality.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication among kidney transplant patients. UTI caused by multi-resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing bacteria (ESBL) have largely increased among the hospitalized patient population and especially kidney transplant recipients. We retrospectively studied 83 kidney transplant patients to evaluate the incidence and possible causative conditions of ESBL-related UTI over the last 6 years. ESBL production was determined by the antibiotic susceptibility profile of urine cultures. We compared the incidence in two 3-year periods, 2003-2005 (period 1) and 2006-2008 (period 2). An high incidence of ESBL-related UTI (16.8%) was observed in the posttransplant period performing 31% of the overall UTI incidence, with an increase over the last 3 years from 23.8% to 37.5%. ESBL-related UTI was related to previous episodes of UTI (78.6% vs 29.0%; P < .01) and reoperations (50.0% vs 12.9%; P < .05). We observed a progressively increasing incidence of 13%, 38%, and 45% of ESBL-related UTI among first, second, and third episodes, respectively. Age, gender, HLA mismatches, etiology of chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, acute rejection, induction treatment, and type/level of immunosuppressants were similiar between the groups with or without ESBL-related UTI. We observed a high increased incidence of ESBL-related UTI among kidney transplant recipients, and particularly patients with recurrent UTI.
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The guidelines were compared with others in standard textbooks of surgery and peer-reviewed articles. The guidelines were prepared and revised by the Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the CIDS. They were then reviewed and revised further by the Council of the CIDS.
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Patients with malignant disease may be predisposed to bacterial infections because of neoplastic disruption of normal tissue barriers, exogenous immunosuppressive therapy (drugs with or without radiation), and intrinsic host immune deficits secondary to these diseases. Diminished polymorphonuclear leucocyte numbers or function and impaired humoral immunity are highly correlated with the development of serious bacterial infections. The usual signs and symptoms of infection may be absent or altered in a compromised host. Therapy must be instituted promptly upon clinical suspicion of bacterial infection, and empirical choices should usually include combinations that are synergistic for likely pathogens based on knowledge of the local predominant flora and susceptibility data. Synergism has most often been demonstrated in combinations that utilise a beta-lactam (semisynthetic penicillin or cephalosporin) and an aminoglycoside. Triple drug therapy has not been shown to be advantageous. Monotherapy with third generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, or ureidopenicillins has not been proven to offer advantages over 2-drug regimens for these patients. Granulocytopenic patients who respond to 2-drug therapy but remain neutropenic may need continued treatment until the neutropenia subsides. Those who do not respond and remain febrile with an unclear focus may need to be started on antifungal therapy in addition to the antibacterial agent. The use of oral agents for the prophylaxis of neutropenic patients against bacteraemia remains controversial. If drugs are used, co-trimoxazole and nystatin suspension may be preferable.
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Twenty-two HIV-infected volunteers with a median CD4 cell count of 37 cells/mm3.
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To assess the contribution of private health care providers to TB and TB-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) case finding in Lagos State.
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Antibiotic prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole on urinary catheter removal significantly reduces the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infections and bacteriuria in patients undergoing abdominal surgery with perioperative transurethral urinary catheters.
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Fixed drug eruption (FDE) represents a frequent type of drug eruption in Turkey. The aim of this open study is to analyze the clinical features with special emphasize on drug related pattern in our case series. Sixty-four cases with established FDE by oral provocation were clinically evaluated. Cotrimoxazole, a combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, was the most common offender for FDE (75%), followed by naproxen sodium (12.5%), dipyrone (9.5%), dimenhydrinate (1.5%) and paracetamol (1.5%). Sensitivity to more than one drug was not observed. Cotrimoxazole-induced FDE was mainly located on male genitalia. Naproxen predominantly affected lips and face whereas dipyrone mainly caused FDE on trunk and extremities. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference only for dipyrone versus cotrimoxazole over trunk and extremities (p = 0.03). Familial occurrence, symmetrical and asymmetrical nonpigmenting FDE, linear FDE, solitary plaque on the cheek, and "wandering" FDE were unusual findings of cotrimoxazole-induced FDE. Cotrimoxazole was the leading etiological agent in our series. Cotrimoxazole-induced FDE had some rarely or previously unreported features, but a significant relation between drugs and involved areas or clinical pattern could not be established.
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An 82-year-old woman with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim resulting in angioedema and rash presented to the emergency department (ED) with angioedema and severe dysphagia, shortness of breath, and rash after receiving valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) for 4 months. Valsartan was identified as the most likely cause of the symptoms and was discontinued; however, the patient continued to have weekly episodes of angioedema and eventually returned to the ED. HCTZ was discontinued at the second ED visit, and the angioedema disappeared. However, it reappeared after reinitiation of HCTZ, and the patient returned to the ED again; this time with more severe symptoms. After the third ED visit and second hospitalization, HCTZ was permanently discontinued, and the angioedema has not returned. HCTZ was the definite cause of angioedema in this patient based on a score of 9 on the 10-point Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale.
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355 and 362 TB patients were registered in 1999 and 2000, respectively; 70% were HIV-positive. The overall case fatality rate fell from 37% to 29%, i.e. for every 12.5 TB patients treated, one death was averted. Case fatality rates were unchanged between the two years in HIV-negative patients, but fell in HIV-positive patients from 43% to 24%. The improved survival became apparent after the first 2 months and was maintained beyond the end of treatment. The improvement was most marked in patients with smear-positive TB and others with confirmed TB diagnoses.
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He was discharged 1 week after stenting and maintained on oral bactrim based on sensitivity. At 1-year follow-up, he remains well symptomatically and CT scan showed no endoleak or collection.