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Orally administered TSM as prophylaxis before elective colorectal surgery results in a low rate of organ/space SSI but an increased rate of incisional SSI compared with intravenously administered cefuroxime and metronidazole. Thus, when considering orally administered TSM, because of environmental concerns or for economic reasons, the slightly increased infection rate has to be kept in mind.
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Of 450 samples studied, 8 samples (1.77%) were contaminated with H. pylori. Brand C of bottled mineral water had the highest prevalence of H. pylori (3.63%). The bottled mineral water samples of July month had the highest levels of H. pylori-contamination (50%). H. pylori strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (62.5%), erythromycin (62.5%), clarithromycin (62.5%), amoxicillin (62.5%) and trimethoprim (62.5%). Totally, 12.5% of strains were resistant to more than 6 antibiotics. VvacAs1a (100%), vacAm1a (87.5%), cagA (62.5%), iceA1 (62.5%), oipA (25%), babA2 (25%) and cagE (37.5%) were the most commonly detected genotypes. M1as1a (62.5%), m1as2 (37.5%), m2s2 (37.5%) and S1a/cagA+/IceA2/oipA-/babA2-/cagE- (50%) were the most commonly detected combined genotypes.
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The overall eradication rate was 80.7% (109/135, 95% CI 73.3%-86.5%) in the intention-to-treat analysis. The presence of amoxicillin resistance (OR 6.83, 95% CI 1.62-28.86, P = 0.009) and prior sequential therapy (OR 4.77, 95% CI 1.315-17.3, P = 0.017), but not tetracycline resistance (tetracycline group), were associated with treatment failure. The eradication rates in patients who received clarithromycin-, levofloxacin- and tetracycline-based sequential therapies were 78.9% (15/19), 92.2% (47/51) and 71.4% (25/35) in strains susceptible to clarithromycin, levofloxacin and tetracycline, respectively.
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We conducted a 9-month prospective observational study of patients with C. difficile-associated disease. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare metronidazole-treated and vancomycin-treated patients in terms of time to resolution of diarrhea and time to reduction of C. difficile in stool to an undetectable level.
The only medication which is authorized for therapy of rosacea is doxycycline. It is usually administered at a dose of 40-100 mg daily for 3-6 months. In case of a lack of efficacy or in case of contraindications (e.g. pregnancy, children below 8 years), azithromycin or metronidazole are alternative systemic therapies. Those forms of rosacea which involve hyperplasia of sebaceous glands respond well to retinoids such as isotretinoin. Dapsone has been successfully used for the treatment of granulomatous rosacea and rosacea fulminans. Erythema can be reduced by use of beta blockers. If patients do not respond to various therapies or if they are immunocompromised, the differential diagnosis of demodicosis should be considered; here the treatment is oral ivermectin. Some forms of rosacea (rosacea fulminans and granulomatous rosacea) may be treated initially with oral corticosteroids. Ophthalmic rosacea is treated topically as well as with tetracyclines or macrolides.
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A cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the hospital provider was carried out. Decision analysis was used to illustrate outcomes and to provide a basis on which to conduct a sensitivity analysis. Cost-effectiveness ratios, representing the cost per expected successfully treated patient, were calculated to determine the most cost-effective alternative.
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Quadruple therapy using a proton-pump inhibitor, bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline is a standard second-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection, achieving an eradication rate of about 80% in Korea. A standard third-line therapy is not currently established, although various protocols have been proposed. We performed this study to evaluate the effectiveness of a retrial with quadruple therapy before starting a third-line treatment with new drugs.
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As many as 50% of spontaneous preterm births are infection-related, with Mycoplasma species being the most common microbial isolates from the amniotic cavity. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of macrolides, a specific group of antibiotics known to be effective against Mycoplasma species, on the rate of preterm births.
Stool samples were collected weekly from all the patients in the adult ICU for a period of 6 months and processed for isolation and phenotypic and genotypic characterization of VRE isolates. Patient and treatment details were noted and cases (those with VRE in stool) and controls (those without VRE in stool) were compared statistically. Further, a multivariate analysis was done to identify those antibiotics as independent risk factors for VRE colonization.
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Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were common causative agent of postoperative infections and puerperal sepsis.
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The purpose of this study was to extemporaneously formulate a liquid dosage form from commercially available tablets and establish the chemical stability of the drug. A suspension of metronidazole (15 mg/mL) was formulated from 500-mg metronidazole tablets. Stability-indicating, high-performance liquid chromatography assay procedures were utilized to analyze the concentration of the drug. Chemical stability was predicted using accelerated stability studies conducted at four temperatures, namely, 40 deg, 50 deg, 60 deg, and 70 deg C for metronidazole. The Arrhenius plot was used to predict the shelf-life of the metronidazole suspension at room temperature. The shelf-life was calculated from the initial concentration and k0 was found to be 73 years. Howwever, it would be more reasonable to expect that a quantity lasting no more than 90 days should be prepared and dispensed.