To determine the prevalence of cerebellar ataxia in central nervous system WD.
We report an uncommon case of a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum arising in a new tattoo. A 29-year-old man presented with a several month history of a non-pruritic papular eruption within a tattoo; the papules developed 1-to-2 weeks after the tattoo procedure. He denied similar symptoms with previous tattoos. He had been treated unsuccessfully with cephalexin. Histopathologic examination revealed perifollicular chronic and granulomatous inflammation, consistent with chronic folliculitis. Acid-fast bacilli culture identified Mycobacterium fortuitum complex. The patient was treated with a 2-month course of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160mg/800mg twice daily) and ciprofloxacin (250 mg twice daily), with clinical improvement at follow up after three weeks of the antibiotic regimen. Rapidly growing mycobacteria have emerged as a cause of tattoo-associated cutaneous infection in recent years. Diagnosis and treatment can be difficult without clinical suspicion. M. fortuitum and other rapidly growing mycobacteria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tattoo-associated dermatologic complications.
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Nocardia infection is a well-recognized complication in renal transplant recipients and other immunocompromised hosts. It is mostly a primary pulmonary infection, which can disseminate to other organs in half of the cases. Nocardiosis is a life-threatening infection. Therefore, an efficient long-lasting treatment must be rapidly administered. We report 1 case of disseminated nocardiosis with pulmonary involvement, brain lesions, and bone lesions in a renal transplant patient, who was treated with stereotactic aspiration in association with high dose of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and imipenem, changed, after 3 weeks to moxifloxacin. First, clinical manifestations decreased after surgical drainage and combination therapy with the 2 antimicrobial agents, but later the patient developed a recurrence of brain lesions during treatment with quinolones. Consequently, the patient was again treated with TMP/SMX and imipenem, after which the patient recovered. It is surprising that moxifloxacin was efficient in vitro and the antimicrobial concentration in the central nervous system was high, yet the nocardial abscess recurred under this therapy.
The electronic patients record system of a nationwide health management organization in Israel was reviewed for all primary care visits by adult women treated empirically for cystitis or urinary tract infection from January 2001 to June 2002 (n = 7738 patient-physician encounters). The proportion of cases treated according to the guidelines, with regard to duration, was calculated for each drug used.
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Of 82 HIV-infected individuals who were alive at the time of interview, 76 (93%) were continuing with cotrimoxazole and wished to do so indefinitely. The most common reason for continuing the drug was to prevent illness associated with HIV, while the most common reason for stopping was long distances to the health facility. Ninety-six percent of patients received cotrimoxazole free of charge from a health centre. Of those who wished to continue indefinitely, the majority (63%) could not afford to pay for the drug.
Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is a recognised cause of meningitis in premature neonates and severe infections in immunocompromised adults; multi-drug resistance is a major issue. A premature infant developed sepsis, meningitis and hydrocephalus owing to E. meningoseptica and was treated successfully with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) for 3 weeks. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was required for hydrocephalus. This is the youngest patient with meningitis caused by E. meningoseptica to have responded to TMP-SMZ.
Edwardsiella tarda, a catalase-positive bacillus widely distributed throughout nature, is generally susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. We describe osteomyelitis due to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. tarda in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Once E. tarda acquires antibiotic resistance, infected CGD patients may develop severe infections with unforeseeable consequences.
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There were significant differences between younger and older patients with pediatric Lyme arthritis. Younger patients were more likely to have fever at the onset of arthritis and to have acute or episodic arthritis. Older patients were more likely to have chronic arthritis, higher levels of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi (by ELISA and immunoblot), and a longer interval between antibiotic treatment and the disappearance of arthritis. Of 51 patients followed for at least 12 months after initiation of antibiotic treatment, 24% retained manifestations of the disease including arthritis (8 patients) and arthralgias (4 patients). These patients were predominantly female (9/12) and were significantly older than patients without residual symptoms. Patients who had received intraarticular steroids prior to antibiotic treatment required significantly more courses of antibiotic treatment and the time required for disappearance of the arthritis was longer.
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We report an unusual and severe vasculitic disorder following co-trimoxazole, given orally for a urinary tract infection. The vasculitis was manifest solely as thrombophlebitis migrans and involving only veins without evidence of polyarteritis nodosa, or underlying malignancy.
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All GISA strains were susceptible to TMP-SMX. In addition, it appears that TMP-SMX may have concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against these organisms. As an option in the management of GISA infection, TMP-SMX merits further study.