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Children who had acute otitis media and were treated with levofloxacin were assessed for the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Nasopharynx cultures were obtained from patients at the entry to and during levofloxacin therapy. All nasopharynx isolates (n = 59) from 12 children were levofloxacin susceptible without parC/E or gyrA/B mutations. Pneumococcal nasopharynx persistence was not associated with levofloxacin resistance.
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The identification and susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeaes and Mycoplasmas were detected by a cultural method. The nitrocefin test was used to detect the beta-lactamase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains. Chlamydia trachomatis was identificated by a monoclonal gold labeled antibody method.
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All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, erythromycin and minocycline. While no criteria exist for assessment of susceptibility to roxithromycin, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were low. Approximately 46% of strains from Aboriginal children and 27% from non-Aboriginal children appeared susceptible to ampicillin. A small number of strains was intermediately resistant to cefaclor (9/261, 3.4%), while the bulk of strains was intermediately resistant to co-trimoxazole. A low prevalence of tetracycline resistance (3/261, 1.1%) was noted. beta-lactamase production was observed in 97.7% of strains.
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Elderly people are more susceptible to pneumococcal infections. Data in Germany from 2005-2010 shows that especially seniors are prone to develop serious complications such as sepsis. Women are obviously less affected than men. Most of the infections occurred during the winter months. The majority of isolates, i.e., about 80%, possess capsular polysaccharide antigens which are represented in the 23-valent vaccine. Consequently, it could be assumed that the severe complications ensuing long hospital stays and associated with a high mortality could have been avoided, if the elderly people would have been vaccinated, which, however, was only true in a small proportion (28%). Recently, a new conjugated vaccine was introduced to the market. In principle, several antibiotics are available for direct antibacterial treatment. All isolates are susceptible to cefotaxime as well as to ceftriaxone. Resistance to penicillin as well as ampicillin is very rare in Germany. The vast majority of isolates are susceptible to quinolones such as levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Resistance to macrolides, for example to erythromycin, occurs to a certain extent but the percentage has been declining in recent years. Nevertheless, in many instances therapy is too late. Thus, prevention is of great importance.
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This study documented substantial resistance to standard antimicrobial therapy among GNB commonly isolated from cIAIs in South Africa. With the application of the new CLSI carbapenem breakpoints, discrepancies were noted between ertapenem and imipenem-cilastatin with regard to the changes in their individual susceptibilities. Longitudinal surveillance of susceptibility patterns is useful to guide recommendations for empiric antibiotic use in cIAIs.
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Here we describe a cluster of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among 26 patients with osteoarticular infections. The aim of the study was to define the source of C. difficile and to evaluate the impact of general infection control measures and antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of CDI.
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A total of 63 patients across eight centers in Japan were enrolled in the study. Overall, 61 corneal and 58 aqueous humor samples were evaluated. The concentration (mean±standard deviation) of moxifloxacin in corneal tissues was 12.66±8.93 μg/g, which was significantly higher than that of gatifloxacin (4.71±3.39 μg/g; P<0.0001) and levofloxacin (5.95±4.02 μg/g; P<0.0001). The mean concentration of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor samples was 1.40±1.17 μg/mL, which was significantly higher than that of gatifloxacin (0.65±0.80 μg/mL; P=0.0001) and levofloxacin (0.89±0.86 μg/mL; P<0.05). The sequence of drug administration did not significantly affect the results.
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Helicobacter pylori is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. In the past two decades, the recommended treatment for its eradication as a first-line regimen is the standard triple therapy consisting of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. However, the effectiveness of this traditional regime, which initially was 90%, progressively declined in many parts of the world and is currently 57-73%. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the eradication rate with triple therapy with levofloxacin is superior as first-line therapy to that with treatment using clarithromycin in the population that attended as outpatients at the Hospital of Lídice.
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Fluoroquinolones have been shown to decrease infective complications after prostate biopsy. However, fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging. We quantified contemporary rates of infective complications and the incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis.
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Anthrax, which is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is one of the oldest documented infectious diseases in both livestock and humans. The differentiation of B. anthracis strains is difficult because of their highly homogeneous genomes. We used multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with 25 markers to genotype 55 B. anthracis isolates from 16 distinct regions of Turkey. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was investigated using the agar dilution method. An eight-loci MLVA assay revealed six unique genotypes (G(K)13, G(K)27, G(K)35, G(K)43, G(K)44, and G(K)61). However, the 25-loci MLVA was more discriminatory, revealing the presence of ten genotypes instead of six. The additional genotypes resulted from the split of four subtypes: G(K)35 (b and c), G(K)43 (a and f), G(K)44 (d and e), and G(K)61 (i and j). All of the Turkish B. anthracis isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tigecycline, linezolid, and vancomycin. One isolate was resistant to penicillin and to doxycycline. A total of 34 isolates were susceptible, 20 isolates were partially susceptible, and one isolate was resistant to erythromycin. None of the isolates exhibited susceptibility to cefotaxime. A total of 53 isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, and two were resistant. The genotypes G(K)35 (n=24), G(K)44 (n=13), and G(K)43 (n=10) were the most prevalent in 10, 6, and 5 regions, respectively, of the total 16 provinces. The B. anthracis isolates collected from these regions implied that the movement of B. anthracis is a result of the increased transportation of livestock and the resultant cross contamination.
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Antibiotic resistance and poor compliance are the main causes of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) eradication failure. This study evaluated the eradication rate, tolerability, and compliance of Levofloxacin, Clarithromycin and Esomeprazol combined triple therapy for H. pylori eradication.