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Reductions of maternal sexually transmitted disease improved pregnancy outcome but not maternal HIV acquisition or perinatal HIV transmission.
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Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random effects model and the results expressed as relative risk (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or weight mean difference (WMD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
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Strains (n = 8) of each of E. coli O26, E. coli O111 and E. coli O157 were inoculated at ca 10-20 CFU g(-1) into minced retail meat and enriched for 6 h at 41.5 degrees C as follows: E. coli O26 in tryptone soya broth (TSB) supplemented with cefixime (50 microg l(-1)), vancomycin (40 mg l(-1)) and potassium tellurite (2.5 mg l(-1)); E. coli O111 in TSB supplemented with cefixime (50 microg l(-1)) and vancomycin (40 mg l(-1)); E. coli O157 in E. coli broth supplemented with novobiocin (20 mg l(-1)). DNA was extracted from the enriched cultures, and detected and quantified by real-time PCR using verotoxin (vt1 and vt2) and serogroup (O157 per gene; O26 fliC-fliA genes and O111 wzy gene) specific primers.
In a randomized, unblinded multicenter study of 209 men and 124 women with uncomplicated gonorrhea, we compared three single-dose treatment regimens: 400 mg or 800 mg of cefixime, administered orally, and 250 mg of ceftriaxone administered intramuscularly. The overall cure rates were 96 percent for the 400-mg dose of cefixime (89 of 93 patients) (95 percent confidence interval, 93.5 percent to 97.8 percent); 98 percent for the 800-mg dose of cefixime (86 of 88 patients) (95 percent confidence interval, 94.6 percent to 100 percent); and 98 percent for ceftriaxone (92 of 94 patients) (95 percent confidence interval, 94.9 to 100 percent). The cure rates were similar in men and women, and pharyngeal infection was eradicated in 20 of 22 patients (91 percent). Thirty-nine percent of 303 pretreatment gonococcal isolates had one or more types of antimicrobial resistance; the efficacy of all three regimens was independent of the resistance pattern. Chlamydia trachomatis infection persisted in at least half the patients infected in each treatment group. All three regimens were well tolerated.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for one of the major reasons for most hospital visits and the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens will help to guide physicians on the best choice of antibiotics to recommend to affected patients. This study is designed to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the pathogens associated with UTI in Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. Clean catch urine samples of inpatient and outpatient cases of UTI were collected and bacteriologically analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiogram was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The most prevalent isolates were S. aureus (28%), E. coli (24.6%), and S. saprophyticus (20%). The antibacterial activities of the tested agents were in the order of Augmentin < Ceftazidime < Cefuroxime < Cefixime < Gentamicin < Ofloxacin < Ciprofloxacin < Nitrofurantoin. It was found that all the organisms were susceptible in varying degrees to Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species except Streptococcus spp. have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) greater than 0.2. For empiric treatment of UTIs in Awka locality, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin are the first line of choice.
Sixteen patients out of the 19 given cefixime recovered vs. 14 out of the 17 given amoxycillin-clavulanate with no significant difference between both groups. Bacteria were more often susceptible to cefixime (100% of cases) than to amoxycillin-clavulanate (69%) (p < or = 0.0001). Safety was good and comparable in both groups.
The recommended treatment for gonorrhoea in the United Kingdom has, until recently, included the fluoroquinolone, ciprofloxacin, which consequently was used by most genitourinary medicine clinics. In 2002 national surveillance data showed that resistance to ciprofloxacin had risen to a prevalence of 9.8% (9% in 2003), indicating that the target of >95% efficacy in first line therapy was no longer achievable. The third generation cephalosporins, ceftriaxone (intramuscular) or cefixime (oral), are the recommended alternatives, but recent audit data reveal other cephalosporins are currently being used to treat gonorrhoea, notably including cefuroxime (intramuscular or, often, oral). A pharmacodynamic analysis was undertaken to determine whether all these regimens were equally potent. Ceftriaxone, 250 (or 500) mg intramuscularly, or cefixime, 400 mg orally, were calculated to give free drug concentrations above the MIC90 for 22-50 hours post dose whereas the cefuroxime regimens being used were pharmacodynamically borderline, achieving this target for only 6.8-11.2 hours and raising the spectre that continued use may select for stepwise increases in resistance, as occurred with penicillin. We therefore underscore that ceftriaxone or cefixime should be the agents of choice to replace ciprofloxacin, as recommended in the new treatment guidelines, and that cefuroxime is a poor substitute.
The emergence and spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with resistance to oral antibiotics have led to difficulty in treating gonorrhea. We review drug resistance in N. gonorrhoeae with a particular emphasis on resistance to fluoroquinolones, cefixime and azithromycin.
Between January 2010 and December 2013, isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were obtained from sexually active individuals during medical examination at the STD Center of Semmelweis University in Budapest. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, penicillin, tetracycline and spectinomycin were determined to establish the antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains currently circulating in patients that attend our clinic.
In order to justify the surveillance control system and hygiene policy in Jordan, this study evaluated the occurrence of diarrhoea during the period 1988-2000, focusing on cases caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. From January 1988 to December 2000, the number of notified diarrhoeal cases by the Ministry of Health in Jordan was 1,399,563 million. Other groups of patients confined to the Governorate of Amman was diagnosed at Al-Battikhi Medical Laboratories. One-way ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (LSD) were carried out for statistical analysis. The number of reported diarrhea cases was 1,399,563, 53.0% were males, and 47.0% were females, among them, 80.3% were < 20 years and 19.7%, were > 20 years. Out of 245,255 patients tested for S. typhi and S. pararyphi, positive stool culture were 1992 (0.6%). Out of these, 960 (48.2%) were males and 1,032 (51.8%) were females (P = 0.028). The highest incidence rate (10.8) was observed in the year 1993, while the lowest incidence rate (0.9) was found in year 2000. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was found between the number of S. typhi and S. Paratyphi cases and year. The seasonal variation was also found to be significant (P < 0.0001), with the summer period showing the highest incident rate. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed between number of typhoid and paratyphoid cases and districts. A significance difference between number of typhoid and paratyphoid cases with age and sex. The group most affected was school age and adolescence. The demographic situation plays an important role in reporting typhoid and paratyphoid cases, where there might be an urgent indication for a better surveillance control system on water resources and disposal systems. S. typhi and S. paratyphi antibiotics resistance pattern showed they were resistant to tetracycline (56.0%, 58.0%), ampicillin (45.0%, 48.0%), trimethoprim (43.0%, 47.0%), cephtazidime (12.0%, 13.5%) chloramphenicol (6.8%, 7.2%), gentamycin (3.0%, 4.0%) neomycin (2.1. 1.8%), calvulanic acid (augmentin (1.4%, 2.2%) and norofloxacin (0.92%, 1.1%). Susceptibility to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, cetfriaxone, ofloxacine, imepenim, cefixime and cefotaxime was 100.0%. The increase in percentage of antibiotic resistant strain might indicate a need for a further prescribing policy for treatment.
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Although cholera is an endemic disease in Bangladesh, India and other countries, it was never a significant cause of gastroenteritis in Pakistan before 1988. Since then, cases of cholera are identified each year, both in adults and children in Pakistan. In order to see the contribution of Vibrio cholerae as a cause of gastroenteritis in children, we reviewed the cases of cholera admitted in the pediatric ward of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Of 4346 children hospitalized with gastroenteritis during 1990 through 1995, 348 children (8%) were confirmed to have cholera. The youngest child with cholera was seven days old. The mean age was 31 +/- 34 months. The cases of cholera were received from all over the city. Most cases were due to Vibrio cholerae Ogawa biotype ELTOR but the new strain, i.e., Vibrio cholerae 0139 was isolated in 14% cases in 1994. The sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae has also changed. In 1994, the organisms were resistant to commonly recommended antibiotics, i.e., tetracycline, ampicillin and erythrocin but sensitive to ceftrioxone, cefixime, ofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Adequate measures to improve hygiene and sanitation and supply of safe potable water is needed to prevent any future epidemic of cholera in the city.