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Topcillin (Augmentin)
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Topcillin

Topcillin is a penicillin antibiotic with a notably broad spectrum of activity. The bi-layer tablets provide an immediate release of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium and an extended release of amoxicillin. This enhanced formulation prolongs the time that bacteria are exposed to the antibiotic and promotes coverage of tough-to-treat S. pneumoniae.

Other names for this medication:
Aclav, Alfoxil, Alphamox, Ambilan, Amimox, Amixen, Amobay, Amobiotic, Amocla, Amoclan, Amoclane, Amodex, Amoklavin, Amoksiklav, Amolin, Amorion, Amotaks, Amoval, Amoxal, Amoxan, Amoxibeta, Amoxicap, Amoxiclav, Amoxidal, Amoxidin, Amoxiduo, Amoxihexal, Amoxiplus, Amoxival, Amoxoral, Amoxsan, Amoxy, Amoxydar, Ampliron, Amylin, Atoksilin, Augmaxcil, Augmentin, Augmex, Augpen, Bactoclav, Betamox, Bioclavid, Biomox, Blumox, Cavumox, Cilamox, Clabat, Clamentin, Clamicil, Clamovid, Clamoxin, Claneksi, Clavam, Clavamel, Clavamox, Clavaseptin, Clavet, Clavinex, Clavipen, Clavobay, Clavubactin, Clavucid, Clavulin, Clavulox, Clavumox, Clonamox, Curam, Dexyclav, Dimopen, Duomox, Enhancin, Exten, Fabamox, Fleming, Fulgram, Germentin, Gimaclav, Gloclav, Glomox, Grinsil, Hiconcil, Himox, Homer, Hymox, Imadrax, Julmentin, Julphamox, Kesium, Klamoks, Klavox, Klavunat, Largopen, Macropen, Maxamox, Medoclav, Megamox, Megapen, Moxacil, Moxatag, Moxiclav, Moxilen, Moxilin, Moxypen, Myclav, Mymox, Natravox, Neomox, Nisamox, Noprilam, Noroclav, Novaclav, Novamox, Novax, Novocilin, Optamox, Oramox, Origin, Panklav, Pediamox, Pinaclav, Pinamox, Ranclav, Ranmoxy, Ranoxyl, Rapiclav, Ronemox, Sulbacin, Suprapen, Synulox, Trifamox, Ultramox, Unimox, Vetrimoxin, Vulamox, Xiclav, Zoxil

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Also known as:  Augmentin.

Description

Topcillin is a brand name for an antibiotic, called co-amoxiclav, that is used to treat a wide range of conditions, from bronchitis to Lyme disease. It is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for children, frequently dispensed for ear infections.

The drug is a combination of two active ingredients: amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Together, the drugs fight bacteria that would ordinarily be resistant to amoxicillin alone.

Dosage

Topcillin is typically taken orally, in pill form for adults, and in a liquid (often flavored) suspension for little children. Doctors prescribe the drug so often because it works against many types of disease-causing bacteria.

"When I travel I always have some Topcillin in my travel bag," because it works against so many common infections, said Dr. Alasdair Geddes, an emeritus professor of infectious diseases at the University of Birmingham in England, who ran some of the first clinical trials of Topcillin.

Topcillin is one of the workhorses of the pediatrician's office, prescribed for ear infections that are resistant to amoxicillin alone, sore throats and certain eye infections. The drug is also a powerful agent against bronchitis and tonsillitis caused by bacteria (though many cases of sore throat are viral in origin).

In addition, the drug can fight pneumonia, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, and skin infections. The drug has also been seen as a good potential candidate for treatment of Lyme disease, chlamydia, sinusitis, gastritis and peptic ulcers, according to a 2011 study in the International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Though Topcillin hasn't been conclusively shown to be safe during pregnancy, some studies suggest it is unlikely to do harm to pregnant women or their fetuses, according to a 2004 study in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Women who are pregnant should check with their doctors before taking the drug. The Food and Drug Administration classifies Topcillin as a class B drug, meaning there is no evidence for harm.

Overdose

If you take too much this medication, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center, or seek emergency medical attention right away.

If this medication is administered by a healthcare provider in a medical setting, it is unlikely that an overdose will occur. However, if overdose is suspected, seek emergency medical attention.

Storage

Store between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep bottle closed tightly. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Topcillin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterials, including Topcillin. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with Topcillin, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, Topcillin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

topcillin 500 mg

Two hundred and forty-two patients over 16 years of age with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), matched for age and sex, were randomised to receive either roxithromycin 150 mg b.i.d. or amoxycillin 500 mg/clavulanic acid 125 mg t.i.d. for 7 days, with a further 7 days if insufficient response was seen. Clinical efficacy at 7 days was 69% for roxithromycin and 56% for amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (p = 0.05) and at study end it was 91% for both antibiotics. There were fewer second treatment courses in the roxithromycin group (26% vs. 38%, p = 0.04) and a shorter treatment duration (8.29 days vs. 9.34 days, p > 0.05). Twelve patients (9.8%) treated with roxithromycin and 19 (17.1%) treated with amoxycillin/clavulanic acid had adverse effects possibly, or probably, related to the antibiotic. Roxithromycin appears to be a more appropriate choice than amoxycillin/clavulanic acid for the treatment of LRTI in the community given its more appropriate in vitro spectrum, efficacy against most common and atypical pathogens, greater cost-effectiveness, more convenient dosage regimen (b.i.d.), and superior tolerability profile.

obat topcillin 500 mg

This was a multicentre, equivalence, randomized, double-blind trial of two parallel groups comparing 5 days of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 75 mg kg-1 day-1 (i.e. 25 mg kg-1 every 8 h) and placebo. The main outcome measure was acute otitis media occurring within 8-12 days of initiating treatment.

topcillin tablet

During a 6 month period from March 1990 to August 1990, a total of 159 strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus were isolated from various samples and studied for antibiotic resistance pattern to 12 drugs by Kirby-Bauer method. Ceftazidime and Netilmycin were the most sensitive drugs followed by Cefotaxime, Norfloxacin and Augmentin. All the strains were resistant to Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline. Commonest pattern of resistance was ACGKSTSu. Forty eight isolates were tested for R-plasmids by conjugation experiments using Nalidixic acid resistant E. coli K12F-Lac+ as the recipient strain. The incidence of R-plasmids was 81.25%.

obat topcillin amoksisilin 500 mg

A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts was conducted from the earliest available date through September 2008. We used the following MeSH and key words: amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, Augmentin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, macrolides, AND media, otitis media, and effusion. Included studies were randomized, blinded, and controlled trials evaluating guideline-recommended antibiotics (amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate) compared to macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin or clarithromycin) in AOM in children. The primary outcome assessed was clinical failure measured between days 10 and 16 after starting antibiotic therapy. Results are reported as relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals and were calculated using a random-effects model.

topcillin 500 mg obat apa

Children 5-18 years with <48 h symptoms of acute appendicitis were offered nonoperative treatment: 2 doses of piperacillin IV, then ampicillin/clavulanate ×1 week. Treatment failure (worsening on therapy) and recurrence (after completion of therapy) were noted. Patients who declined enrollment were asked to participate as controls. Cost-utility analysis was performed using Pediatric Quality of Life Scale (PedsQL®) to calculate quality-adjusted life month (QALM) for study and control patients.

obat tablet topcillin

The in vitro activity of ceftibuten, a new orally administered cephalosporin, was assessed against clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Branhamella catarrhalis. The activity of ceftibuten was compared to that of ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and three oral cephalosporins, cefaclor, cefuroxime, and cefixime. With the exception of rare beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains of H. influenzae, resistance to ceftibuten was not observed with any of the study isolates. Ceftibuten was more active than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of H. influenzae; it was less active than this combination for B. catarrhalis. Ceftibuten was essentially equivalent in activity to cefixime against both Haemophilus and Branhamella but more active than cefaclor and cefuroxime against these two organisms.

topcillin 500 mg amoxicillin

Most gram-negative bacilli except Fusobacterium spp. were resistant to penicillin. Piperacillin/tazobactam, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, meropenem and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were very active against all groups, but only 86% of Bacteroides fragilis group strains were susceptible to the latter. Cefoxitin, cefotetan and clindamycin were less active. In particular, only 62%, 52% and 48% of B. fragilis group strains were susceptible, respectively. Clindamycin shows a continuing decrease in activity, as 83% were still susceptible in 1987 and 66% in 1993-94. Anti-anaerobic activity of the new antibiotics is interesting, with MIC50 and MIC90 of 1 and >32 mg/L for moxifloxacin, 2 and 4 mg/L for linezolid and 0.5 and 8 mg/L for tigecycline.

topcillin syrup

Shigella isolates were recovered from 50 of 412 stool samples processed. Resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin was observed in 100, 96, 94 and 82 per cent of the isolates, respectively. The frequency of resistance to these drugs was significantly (P<0.001) higher than that observed during 2000-2002. Resistance to seven drugs was observed in 2000-2002, whereas resistance to 21 drugs was seen during 2006-2009. The number of drug resistance pattern increased from 13 in 2000-2002 to 43 in 2006-2009. Resistance to newer generation fluoroquinolones, 3 rd generation cephalosporins and augmentin, which was not observed during 2000-2002, appeared during 2006-2009.

fungsi obat topcillin 500 mg

Antimicrobial and mechanical treatment resulted in eradication of all periopathogens and significantly improved all clinical parameters. During orthodontic treatment and active maintenance, there was no relapse of GAgP. The patient participated in SPT for 194 weeks and thereafter decided to discontinue SPT. Twenty-four months later a relapse of GAgP was diagnosed and all teeth had to be extracted.

manfaat obat topcillin 500 mg

There were two significant findings from the study. First, HLA-DRB1*15 was increased in patients (53%) versus both treated (33%: OR=2.29: 95% CI: 1.00-5.26) and population controls (30%: OR=2.59:95% CI: 1.44-4.68: p=0.002). Second, DRB1*07 was found to be reduced in patients (9.8%) compared to both treated (35%: OR=0.18: 95% CI: 0.06-0.52: p=0.0011, pc=0.0154) and population controls (29%: OR=0.266: 95% CI: 0.11-0.65: p=0.0019, pc=0.0266).

topcillin 500 mg

BB-81384, a novel PDF inhibitor with good activity against S. pneumoniae in vitro, was the first compound of this class to be profiled for oral pharmacokinetics and tissue disposition and to demonstrate oral anti-pneumococcal efficacy in mice.

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topcillin 500 mg obat apa 2015-06-16

We describe a Amoxicilina Capsulas 500 Mg patient who presented with recurrent, contralateral abducens nerve palsy resulting from acute sphenoiditis.

topcillin 500 mg 2015-04-08

From 1986 to 1991, 602 patients with melioidosis were seen in Sappasitprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchatani, Thailand. The in-hospital mortality was 42%. Of 118 adult patients followed long-term, 27 (23%) had culture-proven relapses of melioidosis (3 relapsed twice), a relapse rate of 15% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11-22) per year. The median time from discharge to relapse was 21 weeks (range, 1-290). In 44% of patients, relapses included septicemia, and 27% died. Patients with severe disease (multiple foci of infection or septicemia) relapsed 4.7 times (95% CI, 1.6-14.1) more frequently than patients with localized melioidosis. Underlying disease was not a risk factor, but initial parenteral treatment with ceftazidime reduced the risk of relapse 2-fold (95% CI, 1.1-3.4). Relapses were 3.3 (95% CI, 1.4-9.0) times more frequent following short-course (< or = 8 weeks) oral coamoxiclav than after the oral combination regimen of chloramphenicol, doxycycline, and cotrimoxazole. Longer oral treatment with either reduced relapse 1.6-fold (95% CI, 1.2-1.9). The optimum choice and duration of antibiotic treatment to prevent relapse in melioidosis remain to be Clavam Oral Suspension determined.

obat tablet topcillin 2017-12-25

Pharmacokinetic parameters after oral administration of 500 mg amoxicillin, 125 mg potassium clavulanate and 625 mg of their combination (augmentin) were determined in a randomized crossover study in ten healthy volunteers. The absolute bioavailability of amoxicillin (AUCoral/AUCi.v.) was 0.70 +/- 0.12. The mean maximum serum concentration of amoxicillin was 6.5 +/- 1.6 mg/l after administration alone and 6.5 +/- 1.4 mg/l after administration in combination. The respective values for potassium clavulanate were 3.4 +/- 1.4 mg/l and 2.8 +/- 1.1 mg/l. With both substances there was no significant difference between the pharmacokinetic parameters after administration alone and in combination. The Supacef 500 Mg AUC for amoxicillin was 19.5 +/- 5.4 h x mg/l after administration alone and 23.2 +/- 10.6 h x mg/l after administration in combination. The respective value for potassium clavulanate were 7.8 +/- 3.2 h x mg/l and 7.3 +/- 2.0 h x mg/l.

topcillin 500 mg amoxicillin 2016-08-12

Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Rulide Tablets 150mg Price Random sample of 12,264 paediatric outpatients seen by paediatricians or general practitioners (GPs). Data on patient demographics, diagnoses and treatment were collected. Diagnoses were coded by ICD-9 and drugs by ATC classification. Patients diagnosed with AOM (ICD-9 codes: 381 and 382) were selected for analysis.

obat topcillin 500 mg 2017-11-09

This study assessed the extent of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in subgingival plaque samples obtained from 25 patients with refractory marginal periodontitis in the USA. beta-Lactamase-positive isolates were characterized using commercial diagnostic kits and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The susceptibilities to different antimicrobial agents were tested and, in addition, the isolates were screened for the presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). beta-lactamase-producing bacteria were detected in 18 (72%) patients. The most prominent beta-lactamase-producing organisms belonged to the anaerobic genus Prevotella. Other enzyme-producing anaerobic strains were Fusobacterium nucleatum, Propionibacterium acnes and Peptostreptococcus sp. Facultative bacteria, such as Burkholderia spp., Ralstonia pickettii, Capnocytophaga spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Neisseria sp., were also detected among the enzyme-producers. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ampicillin and amoxicillin were in the range 1.5-256 micrograms/ml Cefuroxime Zinacef Dosage and 4-256 micrograms/ml, respectively, for the isolates of the Prevotella species. All Prevotella isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole, but they showed variable resistance to tetracyclines. Two of the Prevotella isolates had high MICs of cefotaxime and ceftazidime. ESBL activity was not detected in any of the beta-lactamase-producing isolates by the Etest method. Thus, our study demonstrated a wide variety of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria that may play a role in refractory periodontal disease.

topcillin tablet 2016-04-07

Strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from poultry (n = 99) and from patients (n = 10) and Campylobacter coli isolated from poultry (n = 72) were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The pulsotypes obtained after digestion by SmaI and KpnI revealed a significant genetic diversity in both species, but without any predominant pulsotypes. However, farm-specific clones were identified in the majority of poultry houses (76.5%). Human and Azithromycin Dose Sinus Infection poultry isolates of C. jejuni had common PFGE patterns. High quinolone-resistance rates were observed for C. jejuni (43.4%) and C. coli (48.6%) isolates obtained from poultry.

fungsi obat topcillin 500 mg 2015-04-30

A gerbil model of otitis media induced by a beta-lactamase producing and non- Supacef Pediatric Dose serotypeable isolate of Haemophilus influenzae was used to assess the in-vivo efficacy of co-amoxiclav and cefuroxime at low (5 mg/kg) and high (20 mg/kg) doses. The MIC of the antibiotics tested against the pathogen was 1 mg/L (1/0.5 mg/L for co-amoxiclav). The organism was inoculated (+/-10(6) cfu) by transbullar challenge directly in the middle ear and antibiotic treatment was commenced 2 h post-inoculation and continued at 8 h intervals for three doses. Only high dose co-amoxiclav significantly reduced the number of culture-positive specimens as compared with untreated animals or with other treatment groups (91.7% as compared with 36.7% for high dose cefuroxime). The results obtained in any treatment group were related to middle ear antibiotic level/MIC. Antibiotic concentrations in the middle ear 90 min after administration were about 10% of serum levels at 15 min, probably related to a slight inflammatory response. Only after high dose co-amoxiclav did the concentration in the middle ear exceed the MIC by a factor of four. In otitis media with effusion, if indicated, antibiotics active in vitro should be administered in high doses and, to avoid side effects, probably in short courses.

obat topcillin amoksisilin 500 mg 2015-01-19

This study compared a new regimen (group A: doxycycline, co-amoxiclav, omeprazole) and two routinely prescribed regimens (group B: amoxicillin, omeprazole, furazolidone, bismuth; group C: amoxicillin, clarithromycin, omeprazole) to find an acceptable first-line treatment option for Helicobacter pylori. The Para Que Es Clavipen Suspension study population consisted of 189 patients who referred to our clinic to undergo endoscopy due to ulcer-like dyspepsia. The H. pylori eradication rate was 68% in group A, 56% in group B, and 70% in group C according to per-control analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in H. pylori eradication between groups A and B (P = 0.187), groups A and C (P = 0.857), and groups B and C (P = 0.15). In conclusion, although none of the three eradication regimens can be recommended as a first-line eradication treatment, the new regimen is at least as effective and probably better tolerated than the two routinely applied regimens.

manfaat obat topcillin 500 mg 2017-09-15

We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared one antibiotic regimen used as prophylaxis for SSIs (and Cephalexin 500mg Medication other postoperative infections) with another antibiotic regimen or with no antibiotic, and that reported the methicillin resistance status of the cultured organisms. We did not limit our search for RCTs by language, publication status, publication year, or sample size.

topcillin syrup 2015-03-10

Increase of acute liver injury in patients taking amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) as compared to those taking amoxicillin has been suggested. To further investigate the potential hepatotoxicity of the two drugs a historical cohort study was conducted in the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. One hundred and eighteen potential cases of acute liver injury were identified through the regional hospital information system and medical records were reviewed for all of them. Overall, 12 cases of acute liver injury were identified: 3 cases occurred in the amoxicillin exposure category, 2 among co-amoxiclav group, and 7 in the non-use category. The adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 5.7 (CI 95% 1.5-22.1) among users of amoxicillin alone and 6.2 (CI 95% 1.3-29.7) among users of co-amoxiclav.