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For first-line therapy, 79 patients were randomly assigned to the treatment with rabeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin or with rabeprazole, amoxicillin, and minocycline. For second-line therapy, 88 patients were tested for sensitivity to metronidazole: 67 patients with metronidazole-sensitive strains received a 7-day course of rabeprazole, minocycline, and metronidazole; the remaining 21 patients were given a 7-day course of rabeprazole, minocycline, and faropenem.
Secondary Helicobacter pylori resistances to metronidazole and/or clarithromycin occurred in large percentages in patients with treatment failure after the one-week proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies, proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and metronidazole and proton pump inhibitor, amoxycillin and clarithromycin. It is likely that new antibiotics or treatment strategies will be needed in the near future to successfully treat Helicobacter pylori infection.
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Peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were enrolled in this study. Patients enrolled at the outpatient department (group A) received a 7-day oral regimen: bismuth subcitrate colloid 300 mg + amoxicillin 500 mg + metronidazole 250 mg four times per day. Patients who were admitted to the wards due to peptic ulcer bleeding (group B) received a 3-day regimen including omeprazole 40 mg intravenously every 6 hours, amoxicillin 500 mg + metronidazole 250 mg orally four times daily after hemostasis had been achieved. Patients of both groups received omeprazole 20 mg once per day or cimetidine 400 mg twice daily per os for at least-one month after anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. We followed every patient endoscopically two months after anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy.
Eighty five sero-positive patients had a positive pre-treatment UBT. On intention to treat basis, OCT (100%) had a significantly better eradication rate than OCM (87.8%), p = 0.023. There was no difference in side effects.
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All 4 antibiotics significantly reduced SCAP survival in a concentration-dependent fashion. Interestingly, Ca(OH)(2) was conducive with SCAP survival at all concentrations.
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Antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a serious and increasing problem, and the development of rapid, reliable methods for detecting resistance would greatly improve the selection of antibiotics used to treat gastric infection with this organism. We assessed whether detection of the RdxA protein could provide the basis for determining the susceptibility of H. pylori to metronidazole. In order to raise polyclonal antisera to RdxA, we cloned the rdxA gene from H. pylori strain 26695 into the commercial expression vector pMAL-c2, purified the resultant fusion protein by affinity chromatography, and used this recombinant RdxA preparation to immunize rabbits. We then used this specific anti-RdxA antibody to perform immunoblotting on whole bacterial cell lysates of 17 metronidazole-sensitive and 27 metronidazole-resistant clinical isolates of H. pylori. While a 24-kDa immunoreactive band corresponding to the RdxA protein was observed in all metronidazole-sensitive strains, this band was absent in 25 of 27 resistant isolates. Our results indicate that testing for the absence of the RdxA protein would identify the majority of clinical isolates that will respond poorly to metronidazole-containing eradication regimens and have implications for the development of assays capable of detecting metronidazole resistance in H. pylori.
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To review the effectiveness of alternative antibiotic combinations and necessity of pre-antibiotic sensitivity testing.
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Of 1175 patients, 985 (83%) were admitted to medical services, whereas 190 (17%) were admitted by surgeons. Medical patients were older (63.9 vs 58.9 years; p = 0.001) and had a mean of 0.6 additional comorbidities (p < 0.001); cohorts were similar regarding vasopressors, peak white blood cell counts, and rate of intensive care unit admissions. Mortality was lower among surgery patients (2.6% vs 6.8%; p = 0.028), and logistic regression demonstrated lower odds of mortality for this group OR = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.05-0.58)). After propensity score matching for age, comorbidities, and severity of disease, this difference was confirmed (2.6% vs. 9.5%). A higher incidence of total colectomy for surgery patients (14.2% vs 0.4%) was a causal factor in their longer lengths of stay and higher total hospital costs. The time between orders for stool testing and metronidazole therapy was shorter in the surgery group (1.8 vs 3.8 hours; p = 0.002), although this trend was not observed with vancomycin therapy.
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We assessed pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ceftazidime-avibactam administered ± metronidazole, and whether drug-drug interactions exist between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole. The first study (NCT01430910) involved two cohorts of healthy subjects. Cohort 1 received ceftazidime-avibactam (2000-500 mg) as a single infusion or as multiple intravenous infusions over 11 days to evaluate ceftazidime-avibactam pharmacokinetics. Cohort 2 received ceftazidime, avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam over 4 days to assess drug-drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam. The second study (NCT01534247) assessed interaction between ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole in subjects receiving ceftazidime-avibactam (2000-500 mg), metronidazole (500 mg), or metronidazole followed by ceftazidime-avibactam over 4 days. In all studies, subjects received a single-dose on the first and final days, and multiple-doses every 8 h on intervening days. Concentration-time profiles for ceftazidime and avibactam administered as single- or multiple-doses separately or together with/without metronidazole were similar. There was no evidence of time-dependent pharmacokinetics or accumulation. In both interaction studies, 90% confidence intervals for geometric least squares mean ratios of area under the curve and maximum plasma concentrations for each drug were within the predefined interval (80-125%) indicating no drug-drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole. There were no safety concerns. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic parameters and safety of ceftazidime, avibactam, and metronidazole were similar after single and multiple doses with no observed drug-drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole.
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During the period from January 2010 to December 2014, 224 patients were treated on an outpatient basis at a success rate of over 92%. Only 18 patients (8%) required admission after outpatient treatment.
To compare the surgical outcome in patients with or with no bowel preparation before cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion, specifically assessing local and systemic complications.