A 69-year-old African-American woman admitted to a psychiatric hospital for treatment of major depression with psychotic features was treated and successfully discharged with quetiapine, along with metronidazole and miconazole to treat bacterial/monilial vaginitis. Three days after discharge, the patient presented to a community hospital with shortness of breath and hyperventilation. The patient was admitted and treated for tachypnea and acute respiratory alkalosis. During this hospitalization, the patient was noted to have increased respiratory rate following the administration of quetiapine.
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Intention to treat cure rates were 46% (10/22 patients; 95% CI 24-68%) for second-line triple therapy and 63% (17/27 patients; 95% CI 42-81%) for second-line quadruple therapy. Per protocol cure rates were 71% and 85%, respectively. Intention to treat cure rates were 87% (95% CI 81-92%) for the 'triple first' versus 86% (95% CI 80-91%) for the 'quadruple first' strategy (p = .87). The 'quadruple first' strategy was more cost-effective. The incremental cost of 'triple first' strategy per person was 19 in the low-cost area and 65 US dollars in the high-cost area.
Clostridium difﬁcile can cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Asymptomatic colonization by C. difficile is common during the neonatal period and early infancy, ranging from 21% to 48%, and in childhood. The colonization rate of C. difficile in adult hospitalized patients shows geographic variation, ranging from 4.4% to 23.2%. Asymptomatic carriage in neonates caused no further disease in many studies, whereas adult patients colonized with toxigenic C. difficile were prone to the subsequent development of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). However, the carriage of nontoxigenic C. difficile strains appears to prevent CDAD in hamsters and humans. Risk factors for C. difficile colonization include recent hospitalization, exposure to antimicrobial agents or gastric acid-suppressing drugs (such as proton-pump inhibitors and H2 blockers), a history of CDAD or cytomegalovirus infection, the presence of an underlying illness, receipt of immunosuppressants, the presence of antibodies against toxin B, and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms. Asymptomatic C. difficile carriers are associated with significant skin and environmental contamination, similar to those with CDAD, and contact isolation and hand-washing practices should therefore be employed as infection control policies for the prevention of C. difficile spread. Treating patients with asymptomatic C. difficile colonization with metronidazole or vancomycin is not suggested by the currently available evidence. In conclusion, asymptomatic C. difficile colonization may lead to skin and environmental contamination by C. difficile, but more attention should be paid to the clinical impact of those with C. difficile colonization.
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Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT01792700.
The objective was to demonstrate the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of deep neck space abscess and to analyze the coverage rate of different empiric antimicrobial agents. A retrospective review of hospitalized patients with deep neck abscess diagnosed at a tertiary-care, general hospital between April 2001 and October 2006. The study enrolled 100 patients. The bacterial cultures of 89 patients yielded positive results (89%). The predominant aerobes were viridans streptococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The predominant anaerobes included species of Prevotella, Peptostreptococcus, and Bacteroides. Five different combinations of empiric antibiotics, namely regimen 1: penicillin G and clindamycin and gentamicin, regimen 2: ceftriaxone and clindamycin, regimen 3: ceftriaxone and metronidazole, regimen 4: cefuroxime and clindamycin, and regimen 5: penicillin and metronidazole, were compared using the antimicrobial susceptibility of 89 cases. The coverage rates of regimens 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 67.4%, 76.4%, 70.8%, 61.8%, and 16.9%, respectively. The coverage of regimen 5 was considerably worse than that of the other four regimens (p < 0.001). Regimen 2 was significantly better than regimen 4 (p < 0.001). Regimen 2 had better coverage than regimens 1 (p = 0.096) and 3 (p = 0.302), but the difference was not statistically significant. This study demonstrates the bacteriology of deep neck abscess and analyzes the coverage rate of different empiric antimicrobial agents. Regimens 1, 2, and 3 could be good candidates for empiric antibiotics. Pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy should be adjusted after the culture results are obtained.
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Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexually transmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only approved, effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is frequently reported and cross-resistance among the family of 5-nitroimidazole drugs is common, leaving no alternative for treatment, with some cases remaining unresolved. The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis from treatment failures is not well understood, unlike resistance which is developed in the laboratory under increasing metronidazole pressure. In the latter situation, hydrogenosomal function which is involved in activation of the prodrug, metronidazole, is down-regulated. Reversion to sensitivity is incomplete after removal of drug pressure in the highly resistant parasites while clinically resistant strains, so far analysed, maintain their resistance levels in the absence of drug pressure. Although anaerobic resistance has been regarded as a laboratory induced phenomenon, it clearly has been demonstrated in clinical isolates. Pursuit of both approaches will allow dissection of the underlying mechanisms. Many alternative drugs and treatments have been tested in vivo in cases of refractory trichomoniasis, as well as in vitro with some successes including the broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide. Drug resistance incidence in T. vaginalis appears to be on the increase and improved surveillance of treatment failures is urged.
The aims of this study were to assess primary resistance of H. pylori strains isolated from adult patients of Ilam, Iran to antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and tetracycline) and detection of clarithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and tetracycline resistance by disc diffusion. Fifty biopsies were taken from gastric mucosa of the antrum and body regions of adult patients by gastroscopy, and were cultured on Helicobacter pylori selective medium. The susceptibility of H. pylori strains showed that 44, 6, 6, 4 and 16% were resistance to metronidazole, amoxicillin, tetracycline, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that all clarithromycin resistance isolates had A2143G mutation and PCR amplicons from these strains upon digestion by BsaI restriction enzyme resulted in 319 and 106 base pair fragments. Because most of physicians in Ilam do not use amoxicillin in triple therapy of H. pylori infection, isolates showed low rate of resistance to amoxicillin.
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Our results indicate that short-term treatment with omeprazole in healthy volunteers does not alter the extent or the rate of metronidazole absorption, and does not affect metronidazole clearance.
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Cord colitis syndrome (CCS) is a recently described diarrheal illness of uncertain pathogenesis that affects recipients of umbilical cord blood transplant and is associated with negative cultures. CCS exhibits a peculiar histopathologic appearance, as it commonly manifests as granulomatous inflammation involving the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, with features of chronicity in the colon. Importantly, the treatment for CCS differs from that for acute graft-versus-host disease, which is commonly in the clinical differential diagnosis: CCS responds to antibiotic treatment, whereas acute graft-versus-host disease responds to immunosuppression. We describe here the case of a 36-year-old woman with a history of acute myeloid leukemia who developed refractory diarrhea after cord blood transplant. Endoscopic biopsies of the stomach and colon revealed granulomatous inflammation, consisting of scattered ill-defined aggregates of epithelioid histiocytes, with associated mild neutrophilic inflammation and mildly increased epithelial cell apoptosis. In the colon, the granulomatous inflammation was associated with surface epithelial injury (including surface erosions) and contained occasional multinucleated epithelioid giant cells. Paneth cell metaplasia was present in the distal colon, but crypt architecture was preserved, and there was no basal lymphoplasmacytosis. Special stains and immunohistochemical stains for infectious organisms were negative. A diagnosis of CCS was made, and the patient promptly responded to treatment with ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. We present this case to raise awareness among pathologists of this newly described entity, in order to facilitate its timely diagnosis and treatment.
Agent selection among prophylactic antibiotics is one of many factors associated with infection development in colorectal surgery patients.
We constructed a decision-analytic model comparing 4 treatment strategies for first-line treatment of recurrent CDI in a population with a median age of 65 years: metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin, and fecal microbiota transplant (FMT). We modeled up to 2 additional recurrences following the initial recurrence. We assumed FMT delivery via colonoscopy as our base case, but conducted sensitivity analyses based on different modes of delivery. Willingness-to-pay threshold was set at $50 000 per quality-adjusted life-year.
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There are limited data examining healthcare resource utilization in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).