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Oral cefixime can be recommended as a safe and effective treatment for children with fever and urinary tract infection. Use of cefixime will result in substantial reductions of health care expenditures.
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Treatment failures following therapy with the oral third-generation cephalosporins cefixime and ceftibuten have been reported, but not with the injectable ceftriaxone. The gonococci involved have raised minimal inhibitory concentrations to these agents, including to ceftriaxone. The presence of multiple chromosomal changes form the basis for this 'resistance', prominent among which is a mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 found in association with additional known and unknown mutations in other genes. The imprecise nature of laboratory criteria for detecting these gonococci means that the distribution and prevalence of these strains is also uncertain.
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Retrospective study for a period of 1-year 3 months from January 2013 to March 2014 at a Tertiary Care Hospital.
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Cephalexin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, is rapidly absorbed via the di-and tripeptide intestinal transporters, as for many peptidomimetic drugs. Acute nifedipine has been shown to increase intestinal absorption of several beta-lactams: amoxicillin and cefixime in humans, and cephalexin in the rat. We showed previously that the nervous system was involved in the increasing effect of nifedipine on cephalexin intestinal absorption in anesthetized rats. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: 1) to investigate whether the effect of nifedipine is maintained in conscious rats, and 2) to determine whether the nifedipine effect will persist during chronic nifedipine administration. Acute and chronic oral administration of nifedipine significantly increased oral cephalexin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (34 and 25%, respectively) and maximum concentration in plasma (57 and 51%, respectively), while the distribution and elimination parameters of intra-arterial cephalexin were not affected by acute or chronic nifedipine administration. In conclusion, acute nifedipine effect on intestinal absorption of cephalexin is independent of anesthesia in rats. Since nifedipine could still enhance cephalexin intestinal absorption after a 7-day b.i.d. treatment, it can be envisaged to apply this effect to increase bioavailability of poorly absorbed peptidomimetic drugs in man.
Cefixime is a new oral cephalosporin with in vitro activity similar to that of third-generation cephalosporins. Renal excretion accounts for only 40% of systemic clearance of cefixime, suggesting that biliary excretion of the drug may be significant. This study was designed to determine to what extent nonrenal clearance of cefixime is due to biliary excretion of the parent compound. In an isolated perfused rabbit liver model, biliary excretion of cefixime was very low, with only 0.28 +/- 0.15% of a single 10 mg dose injected in the system being recovered in the bile after three hours perfusion. The liver biotransformation rate for cefixime was found to be 16.2%. These results are in striking contrast with those obtained in human studies. Cefixime levels in duodenal juice aspirates collected over four hours following an intravenous injection of 200 mg cefixime in six healthy volunteers were at least fivefold concomitant serum levels. Studies of bile collected by external biliary drainage during 24 hours following an oral dose of 200 mg cefixime in ten cholecystectomized patients showed that the Cmax was 56.9 +/- 70 mg/l, i.e., 25-fold the serum Cmax (2.3 +/- 0.85 mg/l). The bile AUC/serum AUC ratio was 20.4 +/- 20.3. Mean bile level of cefixime was still as high as 4.3 +/- 3.7 mg/l 20 hours after dosing. The amount of cefixime excreted in the bile over 24 hours was 10.0 +/- 12.3 mg i.e., 5% of the dose administered. Twenty-four hour renal excretion of cefixime was 53.3 +/- 26.2 mg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae has consistently developed resistance to antimicrobials used therapeutically for gonorrhoea and few antimicrobials remain for effective empiric first-line therapy. Since 2009 the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) has been running as a sentinel surveillance system across Member States of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) to monitor antimicrobial susceptibility in N. gonorrhoeae. During 2011, N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected from 21 participating countries, and 7.6% and 0.5% of the examined gonococcal isolates had in vitro resistance to cefixime and ceftriaxone, respectively. The rate of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin resistance was 48.7% and 5.3%, respectively. Two (0.1%) isolates displayed high-level resistance to azithromycin, i.e. a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥256 mg/L. The current report further highlights the public health need to implement the European response plan, including further strengthening of Euro-GASP, to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant N. gonorrhoeae.
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Cefixime is quickly establishing in Western countries as a potent broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of indications. A multinational, nonrandomized study in Central and Eastern Europe has confirmed the excellent efficacy of cefixime in both children and adults. In 45 children with acute sinusitis and 50 with acute otitis media, once-daily cefixime in oral suspension resulted in clinical cure or improvement in 45 (100%) and 48 (96%) patients, respectively. In 60 adult patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and 12 with pneumonia, cefixime 400 mg resulted in cure or improvement in 59 (98%) and 12 (100%) patients, respectively. Similarly, excellent efficacy was found in adults with urinary tract infections (UTI), with cure in 80 (94%) patients, improvement in 4 (5%), and failure in 1 (1%). Very good efficacy of cefixime was also demonstrated microbiologically, with eradication in 35 of 36 isolates from children, including all Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 40 of 45 isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections, and 64 of 71 isolates from patients with UTI.
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Ninety-four clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis were examined for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial drugs; 67 isolates (= 71.3%) produced beta-lactamase(s). In terms of antibiotic resistance, the number of isolates resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, and cotrimoxazole were 56, 32, and 1, respectively. The number of isolates with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin G, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, and fosfomycin were 11, 34, 1, 2, 2, and 47, respectively. All 94 isolates proved susceptible to ampicillin + 10 micrograms/ml of sulbactam, amoxicillin + 4 micrograms/ml of clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefepime, cefixime, imipenem, meropenem, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, tetracycline, fusidic acid, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and rifampin, as based on currently valid NCCLS criteria, where applicable. There were no very major or major discrepancies between agar dilution and agar disk diffusion test results. There were only a few minor discrepancies between test results, specifically: penicillin G (category IV = 4, category VI = 1); ampicillin (category IV = 4, category V = 1, category VI = 7), amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (category III = 11), cotrimoxazole (category IV = 1, category V = 1, category VI = 1), ciprofloxacin (category V = 1), and ofloxacin (category VI = 2). The sole exception was fosfomycin, with a total of 25 minor discrepancies encountered (category III = 14, category V = 9, category VI = 2). Wilkins-Chalgren agar compared favorably with Mueller-Hinton agar following examination with 11 selected antimicrobial drugs against 31 representative isolates of M. catarrhalis.