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Uroflox (Noroxin)
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Uroflox

Uroflox is in a group of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones (flor-o-KWIN-o-lones). Uroflox fights bacteria in the body. Uroflox is used to treat bacterial infections of the prostate and urinary tract. Uroflox also treats gonorrhea. Uroflox may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Other names for this medication:
Ambigram, Danilon, Gyrablock, Loxone, Nolicin, Norbactin, Norflohexal, Norfloxacin, Norilet, Normax, Noroxin, Noroxine, Oranor, Uroxacin

Similar Products:
Cipro, Levaquin, Quixin, Tequin, Avelox, Ocuflox

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Also known as:  Noroxin.

Description

Uroflox comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken twice a day for 3 to 28 days. The length of treatment depends on the type of infection being treated. Your doctor will tell you how long to take Uroflox. Take Uroflox at around the same times every day and try to space your doses 12 hours apart. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take Uroflox exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Take Uroflox at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals or after drinking milk or eating dairy products.

Swallow the tablets with a full glass of water.

You should begin to feel better during the first few days of your treatment with Uroflox. If your symptoms do not improve or if they get worse, call your doctor.

Take Uroflox until you finish the prescription, even if you feel better. Do not stop taking Uroflox without talking to your doctor unless you experience certain serious side effects listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING or SIDE EFFECT sections. If you stop taking Uroflox too soon or if you skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

Uroflox is also sometimes used to treat certain infections of the stomach and intestines. Talk to your doctor about the risks of using this medication for your condition.

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Dosage

Before taking Uroflox tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic or have had a severe reaction to Uroflox; other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the U.S.), gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin) (not available in the U.S.), moxifloxacin (Avelox), nalidixic acid (NegGram), ofloxacin (Floxin), and sparfloxacin (Zagam) (not available in the U.S.), or any other medications.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, herbal products, and nutritional supplements you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section and any of the following: other antibiotics; anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven); certain antidepressants; antipsychotics (medications to treat mental illness); caffeine or medications that contain caffeine (Excedrin, NoDoz, Vivarin, others); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); clozapine (Clozaril, Fazaclo); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); diuretics ('water pills'); erythromycin (E.E.S, E-Mycin, Erythrocin, others); glyburide (DiaBeta, in Glucovance, Micronase, others); certain medications for irregular heartbeat such as amiodarone (Cordarone), procainamide (Procanbid), quinidine, and sotalol (Betapace, Betapace AF, Sorine); nitrofurantoin (Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin); probenecid (in Col-Probenecid, Probalan); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, others); ropinirole (Requip); tacrine (Cognex); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl, others); and tizanidine (Zanaflex). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.

If you are taking antacids containing aluminum hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta, Tums, others), didanosine (Videx) sucralfate (Carafate), or supplements or multivitamins that contain iron or zinc, take these medications 2 hours before or 2 hours after you take Uroflox.

Tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family has or has ever had a prolonged QT interval (a rare heart problem that may cause irregular heartbeat, fainting or sudden death) or an irregular heartbeat and if you have or have ever had nerve problems, a low level of potassium in your blood, a slow heartbeat, chest pain, seizures, myasthenia gravis (condition that causes weakness of certain muscles), cerebral arteriosclerosis (narrowing of blood vessels in or near the brain that can lead to stroke or mini-stroke), or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disorder).

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking Uroflox, call your doctor.

You should know that this medication may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and tiredness. Do not drive a car, operate machinery, or participate in activities requiring alertness and coordination until you know how Uroflox affects you.

Plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light (tanning beds and sunlamps) and to wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen. Uroflox may make your skin sensitive to sunlight or ultraviolet light. If your skin becomes reddened, swollen, or blistered, call your doctor.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Uroflox and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep bottle closed tightly. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Uroflox are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Taking norfloxacin increases the risk that you will develop tendinitis (swelling of a fibrous tissue that connects a bone to a muscle) or have a tendon rupture (tearing of a fibrous tissue that connects a bone to a muscle) during your treatment or for up to several months afterward. These problems may affect tendons in your shoulder, your hand, the back of your ankle, or in other parts of your body. Tendinitis or tendon rupture may happen to people of any age, but the risk is highest in people over 60 years of age. Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had a kidney, heart, or lung transplant; kidney disease; a joint or tendon disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its own joints, causing pain, swelling, and loss of function); or if you participate in regular physical activity. Also tell your doctor if you have ever had any tendon problems during or after your treatment with norfloxacin or another quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are taking oral or injectable steroids such as dexamethasone (Decadron, Dexpak), methylprednisolone (Medrol), or prednisone (Sterapred). If you experience any of the following symptoms of tendinitis, stop taking norfloxacin, rest, and call your doctor immediately: pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or difficulty in moving a muscle. If you experience any of the following symptoms of tendon rupture, stop taking norfloxacin and get emergency medical treatment: hearing or feeling a snap or pop in a tendon area, bruising after an injury to a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.

Taking norfloxacin may worsen muscle weakness in people with myasthenia gravis (a disorder of the nervous system that causes muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. Your doctor may tell you not to take norfloxacin. If you have myasthenia gravis and your doctor tells you that you should take norfloxacin, call your doctor immediately if you experience muscle weakness or difficulty breathing during your treatment.

Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking norfloxacin.

uroflox 750 mg

A prospective randomized study was conducted at an infectious disease hospital in Thailand. Ceftibuten was compared with norfloxacin, both given orally for five days for treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children. One hundred and seventy cases were included in the study. Eighty-eight cases were treated with ceftibuten and eighty-two cases with norfloxacin. The baseline characteristics of the patients in both treatment groups were similar. The results showed that mean durations of diarrhea in the ceftibuten and norfloxacin groups were 2.48 days and 2.29 days, respectively, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). There were Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolated in both treatment groups and all were susceptible to both antibiotics. The mean durations of Salmonella diarrhea in the ceftibuten and norfloxacin groups were 2.7 and 2.2 days, respectively, while those of Shigella diarrhea were 2.3 days and 2.0 days, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in either comparison (p > 0.05). Neither complications nor clinical relapses were observed after both antibiotics' treatment.

uroflox de 500 mg

Antistaphylococcal activity of two new quinolones, norfloxacin and pefloxacin, was studied. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar dilution technique for 312 staphylococcal strains, all of which were resistant to nalidixic acid. 50% and 90% MICs were respectively 1 and 4 micrograms/ml for norfloxacin and 0.5 and 1 micrograms/ml for pefloxacin. Activities of these two new quinolones proved similar on Staphylococcus aureus and non-coagulase-producing staphylococci, regardless of their response to methicillin. Cross resistance between the two drugs was demonstrated.

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Norfloxacin-resistant mutants were isolated and by DNA sequencing the mutations conferring resistance were identified. Mutant fitness was determined by measuring growth rates in vitro. Mutants with reduced growth rates were serially passaged to obtain growth-compensated mutants. The level of DNA supercoiling was determined by isolating plasmid DNA from the susceptible, resistant and compensated mutants and comparing the topoisomer distribution patterns by gel electrophoresis in the presence of chloroquine.

uroflox 600 mg

The in vitro activity of three fluoroquinolones--ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin--was studied on four laboratory-adapted strains (one chloroquine-resistant) and one fresh isolate of P. falciparum from Delhi by the schizont maturation inhibition microtest. The IC50 concentrations (mean +/- SD) were found to be as: ciprofloxacin 6.38 +/- 1.34 micrograms/ml, norfloxacin 11.24 +/- 1.27 micrograms/ml, and ofloxacin 22.3 +/- 3.11 micrograms/ml, while the MIC values were 32 micrograms/ml, 64 micrograms/ml and 128 micrograms/ml for the three drugs in the same order. The IC50 and MIC values for chloroquine-resistant strain were not significantly different from those for the chloroquine-sensitive strains. We conclude that there is little interstrain variability in the in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum to fluoroquinolones, and that there is no cross resistance between them and chloroquine. The reported variability in clinical response of falciparum malaria to fluoroquinolones is not likely to be due to variation in parasite sensitivity.

uroflox 200 mg

Thirty-five women (92%) treated with norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin received therapy during the first trimester. The most common indication for therapy (92%) was urinary tract infection. More pregnancies in the quinolone group resulted in cesarean delivery due to reported fetal distress as compared to the controls (P = .005), without clear reason. Children born to mothers treated with quinolones were significantly heavier (P = .05) than the control infants, possibly because of better control of the urinary tract infection. No malformations were found in the quinolone group, whereas one child in the control group had a ventricular septal defect. No differences were detected between the groups in achievement of developmental milestones or in the musculoskeletal system.

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The in vitro antibacterial activity of temafloxacin hydrochloride (TA-167 or A-62254) was evaluated against a wide variety of clinical isolates and compared with those of other fluoroquinolones. The potency (MIC90) of the compound against gram-positive aerobic bacteria was higher or comparable to those of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin. Against most gram-negative enteric bacteria and Pseudomonas species, temafloxacin was less active than ciprofloxacin, but was generally as active as ofloxacin and norfloxacin, except against Proteus species and Morganella morganii. Against obligate anaerobes, it was more active than the reference quinolones. Temafloxacin was bactericidal for one strain each of Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The compound inhibited E. coli DNA gyrase activity at a low concentration.

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Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43.51 to -30.03, 19 trials, 1013 participants, moderate quality evidence). Antimicrobial therapy also reduced the total stool volume by 50% (ROM 0.5, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.56, 18 trials, 1042 participants, moderate quality evidence) and reduced the amount of rehydration fluids required by 40% (ROM 0.60, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.68, 11 trials, 1201 participants, moderate quality evidence). The mean duration of fecal excretion of vibrios was reduced by almost three days (MD 2.74 days, 95% CI -3.07 to -2.40, 12 trials, 740 participants, moderate quality evidence).There was substantial heterogeneity in the size of these benefits, probably due to differences in the antibiotic used, the trial methods (particularly effective randomization), and the timing of outcome assessment. The benefits of antibiotics were seen both in trials recruiting only patients with severe dehydration and in those recruiting patients with mixed levels of dehydration. Comparisons of antimicrobials In head-to-head comparisons, there were no differences detected in diarrhoea duration or stool volume for tetracycline compared to doxycycline (three trials, 230 participants, very low quality evidence); or tetracycline compared to ciprofloxacin or norfloxacin (three trials, 259 participants, moderate quality evidence). In indirect comparisons with substantially more trials, tetracycline appeared to have larger benefits than doxycycline, norfloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the primary review outcomes.Single dose azithromycin shortened the duration of diarrhoea by over a day compared to ciprofloxacin (MD -32.43, 95% CI -62.90 to -1.95, two trials, 375 participants, moderate quality evidence) and by half a day compared to erythromycin (MD -12.05, 95% CI -22.02 to -2.08, two trials, 179 participants, moderate quality evidence). It was not compared with tetracycline.

uroflox tablet

Kidney transplanted patients are often treated with immunosuppressive, antihypertensive, and antibiotic drugs such as cyclosporine A (CsA), β-blockers, and fluoroquinolones, respectively. Organic cation transporters (OCT) expressed in the basolateral membrane of proximal tubules represent an important drug excretion route. In this work, the renal expression of OCT after syngeneic and allogeneic kidney transplantation in rats with or without CsA immunosuppression was studied. Moreover, the interactions of CsA, β-blockers (pindolol/atenolol), and fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin/norfloxacin) with rOCT1, rOCT2, hOCT1, and hOCT2 in stably transfected HEK293-cells were studied. Kidney transplantation was associated with reduced expression of rOCT1, while rOCT2 showed only reduced expression after allogeneic transplantation. All drugs interacted subtype- and species-dependently with OCT. However, only atenolol, pindolol, and ofloxacin were transported by hOCT2, the main OCT in human kidneys. While CsA is not an OCT substrate, it exerts a short-term effect on OCT activity, changing their affinity for some substrates. In conclusion, appropriate drug dosing in transplanted patients is difficult partly because OCT are down-regulated and because concomitant CsA treatment may influence the affinity of the transporters. Moreover, drug-drug competition at the transporter can also alter drug excretion rate.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the species distribution, antibiotic-resistance profile and presence of enterotoxin (SE) genes in staphylococci isolated from the Dilúvio stream in South Brazil. Eighty-eight staphylococci were identified, 93.18% were identified as coagulase-negative (CNS) and 6.82% coagulase-positive (CPS). Fourteen Staphylococcus species were detected and the most frequently were Staphylococcus cohnii (30.48%) and S. haemolyticus (21.95%). Resistance to erythromycin was verified in 37.50% of the strains, followed by 27.27% to penicillin, 12.50% to clindamycin, 6.81% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 5.68% to chloramphenicol and 2.27% to norfloxacin. None of the investigated strains showed gentamicin and ciprofloxacin resistance. The strains were tested for the presence of sea, seb, sec, sed and see genes by PCR and only CNS strains (43.18%) showed positive results to one or more SE genes. The scientific importance of our results is due to the lack of data about these topics in polluted waters in Brazil. In conclusion, polluted waters from the Dilúvio stream may constitute a reservoir for disseminating antibiotic-resistance and enterotoxin into the community. In addition, the detection of staphylococci in the polluted waters of the Dilúvio stream indicated a situation of environmental contamination and poor sanitation conditions.

uroflox antibiotic

From 1986 to 1994, 812 P. aeruginosa, 1997 E. coli, 437 P. mirabilis, 400 Klebsiella spp., 238 Enterobacter spp., 130 Serratia spp. strains were isolated from clinical materials in the Microbiology laboratory of the Infectious Diseases Institute of Policlinico Monteluce, Perugia University. During the study period the Authors observed the following variations in the susceptibility patterns: increased resistance of P. aeruginosa to piperacillin from 20.8% to 27.2% (P<0.05), amikacin from 11.9% to 17.5% (P<0.05), netilmicin from 11.8% to 28.6% (P<0.01), pefloxacin from 74.4% to 87.8% (P<0.01); E. coli to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin, respectively from 1.3% to 3.6% (P<0.001), from 1.5% to 3.6% (P<0.05) and from 3.2% to 9% (P<0.001); Serratia spp. to ceftazidime from 14% to 33.3% (P<0.05); Enterobacter spp. to norfloxacin from 5.1% to 13.6% (P<0.05), cotrimoxazole from 12.8% to 23.5% (P<0.05) and chloramphenicol from 19.4% to 31.8% (P<0.05). Moreover cephalotin resistant strains of E. coli decreased from 29.3% to 21.3% in the last 4 years (P<0.001).

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uroflox 400 mg 2017-05-27

The fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents possess photosensitizing properties that lead to phototoxic responses in both human and animal subjects. The phototoxicity order reported in humans is: fleroxacin > lomefloxacin, pefloxacin > ciprofloxacin > enoxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Studies both in vivo and in vitro have related this phototoxicity to the generation of reactive oxygen species including hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl radical. We determined the quantum yields of singlet oxygen generation (phi delta) by detection of the singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence at 1270 nm for several fluoroquinolones, naphthyridines and other structurally related compounds. All the fluoroquinolones examined have low phi delta values ranging from 0.06 to 0.09 in phosphate buffer at pD 7.5. We also determined the 1O2 quenching constants for these compounds and their values were on the order of 10(6) M-1 s-1, except Rimstar Drug Interaction for lomefloxacin whose rate constant was 1.8 x 10(7) M-1 s-1. The phi delta values were significantly decreased in a solvent of lower polarity such as methanol (0.007 < or = phi delta < or = 0.02). The production of 1O2 by these antibiotics did not correlate with the order reported for their phototoxicity. We also measured the photogeneration (lambda > 300 nm) of superoxide by these antibacterials in dimethylsulfoxide using electron paramagnetic resonance and the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide. Although there is not a one-to-one correspondence between the relative rates of superoxide generation and the phototoxicity ranking of the fluoroquinolones, the more phototoxic compounds tended to produce superoxide at a faster rate. Nevertheless, the magnitudes of the observed differences do not appear sufficient to explain the range of fluoroquinolone phototoxicity potencies in human and animal subjects in general and the high activity of fleroxacin and lomefloxacin in particular. For these latter drugs the photoinduced loss of the F8 atom as fluoride and the concomitant generation of a highly reactive carbene at C-8 provide a more plausible mechanism for their potent phototoxic and photocarcinogenic properties.

uroflox 200 mg 2017-07-31

M. tuberculosis could be killed by rifampin, isoniazid or ethambutol but also could be induced to become the L-form by these antituberculosis drugs, and it is one of the important factor that affecting the effect of treatment of the tuberculosis. The cell wall Buy Supreme Hats Uk deficient variants of M. tuberculosis could be determined by the PCR of M. tuberculosis. It is recommended that the L-forms should be noticed during the treatment with the antituberculosis drugs and combination treatment with antituberculous drugs to which the L-forms were susceptible, is also very important.

uroflox de 200 mg 2016-08-28

Ciprofloxacin was found to be the most active of a group of 4-quinolone Clavulin And Alcohol antibiotics tested against the SA2f strain of Chlamydia trachomatis (MBC and MIC 1.0 mg/l). Against genital isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis, ciprofloxacin was twice as active as rosoxacin. Ciprofloxacin showed similar activity to that of oxytetracycline against clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, and was 8-fold more active than rosoxacin against the latter.

uroflox antibiotic 2015-07-28

The elimination clearance from the CSF for norfloxacin, AM-1155, fleroxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin and pefloxacin was 14, 22, 21, 20, 47 and 35 microliters/min/rat, respectively. An approximately 3.5-fold difference was thus observed between norfloxacin and sparfloxacin. These values were 4- to 14-fold larger than the [14C]mannitol clearance. Furthermore, the elimination clearance of quinolones Clamoxyl 500 Mg Amoxicillin from the CSF was 7- to 60-fold larger than the active efflux clearance at the BCSFB estimated from our previous in vitro data. Co-administration of AM-1155, pefloxacin and probenecid did not inhibit the elimination of fleroxacin from the CSF.

uroflox 200 mg precio 2015-02-09

Helaeomyia petrolei (oil fly) larvae inhabit the asphalt seeps of Rancho La Brea in Los Angeles, Calif. The culturable microbial gut contents of larvae collected from the viscous oil were recently examined, and the majority (9 of 14) of the strains were identified as Providencia spp. Subsequently, 12 of the bacterial strains isolated were tested for their resistance or sensitivity to 23 commonly used antibiotics. All nine strains classified as Providencia rettgeri exhibited dramatic resistance to tetracycline, vancomycin, bacitracin, erythromycin, novobiocin, polymyxin, colistin, and nitrofurantoin. Eight of nine Providencia strains showed resistance to spectinomycin, six of nine showed resistance to chloramphenicol, and five of nine showed resistance to neomycin. All 12 isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, norfloxacin, aztreonam, cipericillin, pipericillin, and cefotaxime, and all but OF008 (Morganella morganii) were sensitive to ampicillin and cefoxitin. The oil fly bacteria were not resistant to multiple antibiotics due to an elevated mutation rate. For each bacterium, the number of resistant mutants per 10(8) cells was determined separately on rifampin, nalidixic acid, and spectinomycin. In each case, the average frequencies of resistant colonies were at least 50-fold lower than those established for known mutator strain ECOR 48. In addition, the oil fly bacteria do not appear to excrete antimicrobial agents. When tested, none of the oil fly bacteria produced detectable zones of inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans cultures. Furthermore, the resistance properties of oil fly bacteria extended to organic solvents as well as antibiotics. When pre-exposed to 20 microg of tetracycline per ml, seven of nine oil fly bacteria tolerated overlays of 100% cyclohexane, six of nine tolerated 10% xylene, benzene, or toluene (10:90 in cyclohexane), and three of nine (OF007, OF010, and OF011) tolerated overlays of 50% xylene-50% cyclohexane. The observed correlation between antibiotic resistance and organic solvent tolerance is likely explained by an active efflux pump that is maintained in oil fly bacteria by the constant selective pressure of Azithral Review La Brea's solvent-rich environment. We suggest that the oil fly bacteria and their genes for solvent tolerance may provide a microbial reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes.

uroflox 600 mg 2017-08-27

A previously developed pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach was Klavox Antibiotic Dosage used to investigate the epileptogenic activity of norfloxacin as a representative antibiotic with concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity. Rats received an intravenous infusion of norfloxacin at a rate of 5 mg kg of body weight(-1) min(-1) over 30 min. Blood samples were collected for drug assay, and an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded during infusion and postinfusion. An important delay was observed between concentrations of norfloxacin in plasma and the EEG effect. Indirect effect models failed to describe these data, which were successfully fitted by using an effect compartment model with a spline function to describe the relationship between effect and concentration at the effect site, as previously observed with imipenem. The robustness of the PK-PD model was then assessed by keeping the dose constant but increasing the duration of infusion to 120 and 240 min. Although this was accompanied by PK modifications, PD parameters did not vary significantly, and the PK-PD model still applied. In conclusion, the successful PK-PD modeling of the norfloxacin EEG effect in rats should be considered to predict and reduce the epileptogenic risk associated with this antibiotic as a representative fluoroquinolone (E. Fuseau and L. B. Sheiner, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 35:733-741, 1984).

uroflox de 500 mg 2015-04-28

1. Interaction of quinolone antibiotics and the anti-inflammatory agent fenbufen with the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor-chloride channel complex in pyramidal neurons freshly dissociated from the hippocampal CA1 region of the rats was investigated in whole-cell mode, using the patch-clamp technique under voltage-clamp conditions. 2. Quinolones in clinical doses had no effects on the GABA-gated Cl- current (ICl) but slightly suppressed the response at concentrations greater than 10(-5) M. A metabolite of fenbufen, 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPA), also had little effect on the GABA response at therapeutic concentrations. 3. Coadministration of one of quinolones and BPA suppressed the GABA-gated ICl with increase in each of them in a concentration-dependent manner, and there was a parallel shift of the concentration-response curve for GABA to the right but with no effect on the maximum response, thereby indicating a competitive antagonism. The inhibitory potency of antibiotics in combination with BPA was in the order of norfloxacin much greater than enoxacin greater than cyprofloxacin greater than pipemidic acid much greater than ofloxacin greater than cinoxacin = piromidic acid = nalidixic acid = 0. Co Azithromycin 250mg Tablet 4. Norfloxacin and BPA, administered simultaneously, also strongly suppressed pentobarbital sodium (PB)-gated ICl, but they did not act on benzodiazepine (BZP) receptors. 5. Both GABA- and PB-induced ICls reversed at the Cl- equilibrium potential (ECl). In the presence of BPA, the quinolone-induced inhibition of GABA-gated ICls showed no voltage dependence. 6. It was concluded that, in the presence of an anti-inflammatory agent, the quinolone antibiotics decrease the affinity of GABAA receptors, the result being induction of epileptogenic neurotoxicities.

uroflox tab 2016-04-30

Norfloxacin (NFX) is a broad spectrum antibiotic with Cefpodoxime Tablets Brand Name low solubility and permeability, which is unstable on exposure to light and humidity.