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Chorioamnionitis is a potentially life threatening infection of the fetal membranes, commonly caused by ascending bacteria from the vagina and cervix. In our case, a healthy nullipara with a term pregnancy presented clinical signs of infection after induced labour with an intracervical balloon. Thick green and foul smelling amniotic fluid was observed and culture showed massive growth of Aerococcus christensenii, a facultative anaerob species found in the human vagina, previously only rarely alleged to cause invasive infection. Additional testing with 16S rRNA gene analysis also identified the presence of Gemella asaccharolytica, Snethia sanguinegens, P arvimonas micra and S treptobacillus moniliformis. The patient was treated with cefuroxime and metronidazole and recovered quickly. The newborn showed no signs of infection. This case points at the possible role of these pathogens in female genital tract infections. The case also underlines the importance of the combination of culture and culture independent diagnostic approaches to reveal possible polymicrobial natures of selected infections, in this case chorioamnionitis.
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To determine which antibiotics increase or decrease the risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD).
Trials were randomized and double blind. The ASPECT-cUTI regimen was 7 days of either intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam (1.5 g) every 8 h or levofloxacin (750 mg) once daily. The ASPECT-cIAI regimen was 4-14 days of either intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam (1.5 g) plus metronidazole (500 mg) or meropenem (1 g) every 8 h. Baseline cultures were obtained in both indications. Enterobacteriaceae were selected for ESBL characterization based on predefined criteria and were verified genotypically. Outcomes were assessed at the test-of-cure visit 5-9 days post-therapy in ASPECT-cUTI and 24-32 days post-randomization in ASPECT-cIAI among microbiologically evaluable (ME) patients.
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The adsorption profiles of the antibiotic metronidazole (MNE) into the K10-montmorillonite (MMT-K10) clay and the subsequent release have been investigated as a function of pH and MNE/MMT-K10 ratio, in order to evaluate the potential of the MNE/MMT-K10 hybrids as controlled drug delivery system. The adsorption mechanism has been first elucidated by performing complementary equilibrium and kinetic studies and through the X-ray diffractometry (XRD) characterization of the obtained composite materials. The gathered results allowed us to propose a mechanism consisting of a multi-step pathway involving the neutral and the cationic form of the drug, which interact with different sites of the clay surfaces, i.e. the interlayer region and the faces of the lamella. In a second step the drug release kinetics has been studied under physiological pH mimicking conditions simulating the oral drug administration and delivery. For the sake of comparison the commercial formulation has also been employed for the release studies. The investigation of the release profiles and the comparison with the commercial formulation of the drug reveal that the new-tailor made formulation could be fruitful exploited for successfully prolonged the action of drug in the desired site.
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A total of 98 patients (mean age 55.2 years and male 47, female 51) with proven H. pylori infection received 10-day sequential therapy (20 mg of rabeprazole, and 1 g of amoxicillin, twice daily for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of rabeprazole, 500 mg of clarithromycin, and 500 mg of metronidazole, twice daily for the remaining 5 days). Eradication was evaluated 4 weeks later, after completion of treatment by 13(C)-urea breath testing. Eradication rates were calculated by intention-to-treat (ITT) and by per protocol (PP). Compliance and adverse events were also assessed in study group.
A 40-year-old NIH male scientist camped and fished in a remote lake in Alaska. On his return, he developed diarrhea, cramps, and loose stools without blood or mucus in the absence of fever and was diagnosed with giardiasis. A 3-year-old female living in the Florida Keys complained of intermittent stomachaches over a 2-month period. Her stools were variably loose. The patient was diagnosed with giardiasis, which led to examination of her mother, father, and brother, who were mildly symptomatic; all 3 were subsequently diagnosed with giardiasis. The child's only exposure was from swimming in a local community pool. A 40-year-old male from Mexico, who resided in Virginia and worked as a cook in a fast food restaurant, was diagnosed with giardiasis. He denied any symptoms and was not allowed to prepare food. Treatment with metronidazole, nitazoxanide, and albendazole failed to eradicate the infection. He was successfully treated with the combination of paromomycin and metronidazole.
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We aimed to report the outcomes of different H. pylori eradication regimens used in our institution over the last 10 years.
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Patients aged 65 years or older who were taking warfarin and an antimicrobial agent.
The relationship between vancomycin or metronidazole treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) infection was investigated by review of 18 case-control studies. Fifteen (83%) of 18 studies found vancomycin use, days of use, or grams used to be significantly associated with VRE infection or colonization. Intravenous vancomycin use was a significant risk in nine of 10 studies, and oral vancomycin use was a significant risk in three of four studies that stratified risk by route of administration. Although statistically associated, oral vancomycin use was so infrequent (25% in the study with the most use) that it is likely to have only a minor influence as a risk for VRE infection or colonization when compared with the much more widespread use of intravenous vancomycin. Metronidazole exposure was found to be a significant risk in four of five studies that specifically assessed this variable, but the indication for metronidazole use was not specified. Risk factors for both VRE infection and CDAD include antimicrobial exposure, number of antimicrobials, days of antimicrobial use, specific agents (third-generation cephalosporins, clindamycin, and imipenem), patient age, length of hospitalization, severity of underlying illness, use of electronic rectal thermometers, enteral feedings, environmental contamination, and contamination of the hands of health care workers.
Forty consecutive, dyspeptic patients referred for endoscopy (31 with H. pylori infection and nine controls; mean age 49 years; 17 men, 23 women) entered the study. All patients had histological signs of gastritis but no signs of peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Antrum (n=8) and corpus (n=6) biopsy specimens were collected for routine histology, radioimmunoassay tissue somatostatin levels, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, prior to and 6 months after therapy. Basal plasma somatostatin levels were determined prior to eradication, plus 6 weeks and 6 months after therapy. Eradication therapy consisted of amoxicillin, metronidazole and omeprazole.