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This study was performed to compare the efficacy of short-term rabeprazole-based triple therapy with that of omeprazole-based triple therapy and to determine the influence of omeprazole pretreatment in omeprazole-based short-term triple therapy.
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Proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy with two antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication is widely accepted, but this combination fails in a considerable number of cases. Some studies have shown that cranberry inhibits the adhesion of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including H. pylori. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cranberry on H. pylori eradication with a standard therapy including lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (LCA) in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD).
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The present analysis suggested that many current alert classifications were potentially inappropriate especially for drug combinations where pharmacokinetics had not been evaluated. It is expected that PISCS would contribute to constructing a leak-less alerting system for a broad range of pharmacokinetic DDIs. Further validation of PISCS is required in clinical studies with key drug combinations, and its extension to other CYP and metabolizing enzymes remains to be achieved.
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Fourteen HP positive patients received LAN (30 mg b.i.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d.) for one week. Prior to therapy, and at day 8, each patient underwent 13C-ABT. The 13CO2 concentration in breath samples was measured every 15 minutes from t0 to t120. Results are expressed as cumulative percentage of the administered dose of 13C recovered over time (% 13C dose cum), and as a percentage of the administered dose of 13C recovered per hour (% l3C dose/h). Comparisons were carried out by the Wilcoxon test. Data are presented as mean +/- SD.
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Quadruple therapy can be considered as a first-line therapy in areas where the resistance rate to clarithromycin is high. Comparison study of triple therapy and quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is still lacking in Korea despite the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of triple and quadruple therapy as a first-line treatment in H. pylori infected patients with peptic ulcer.
Between January 1995 and March 1997, 78 Helicobacter pylori strains were isolated from patients with gastritis and gastric ulcer and their drug-susceptibilities to 8 antimicrobial agents and 3 anti-ulcer drugs were determined. Imipenem was the most active agent and its MICs to all the strains tested were lower than 0.013 microgram/ml. Amoxicillin, cefaclor and minocycline were active against H. pylori with MIC90s of 0.05 microgram/ml, 0.78 microgram/ml and 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively, and no resistant strains against these drugs were isolated. However, resistant strains to clarithromycin (isolation frequency: 9%), erythromycin (13%), ofloxacin (8%) and metronidazole (13%) were isolated. Triple, double and single resistant strains to above 4 antimicrobial agents were noted. No quadruple resistant strain was isolated. Frequencies of those resistance patterns were 14.3% (triple), 28.6% (double), and 57.1% (single), respectively. Seven erythromycin-resistant strains were shown to be cross-resistant to clarithromycin but 3 erythromycin-resistant strains were susceptible to clarithromycin. It seems likely that this phenomenon is caused by the fact that clarithromycin is more active to H. pylori than erythromycin. The MIC90 value of lansoprazole was lower than those of omeprazole and famotidine.
Fifteen samples were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) by antigen detection (10.3%), 82 samples were positive in mycoplasma cultivation (56.2%), and among the 82 samples, 58 were positive for Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu, 39.7%), 9 were positive for Mycoplasma hominis (Mh, 6.2%), and 15 were positive for Uu and Mh (10.3%). Of all the samples, 4 were positive for both Uu and Ct (2.7%). The rates of drug resistance of the 10 commonly used antibiotics were as follows: erythromycin 32.9%, roxithromycin 41.5%, josamycin 19.5%, leucomycin 22.0%, meleumycin 28.0%, rovamycin 30.5%, azithromycin 37.8%, clarithromycin 26.8%, davercin 24.4%, and clindamycin 26.8%, respectively. The results indicated that drug resistance rates of josamycin and leucomycin were the lowest, and the rates of roxithromycin and azithromycin were the highest.
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687 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and 600 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae , isolated over the period 2002-2003 from specimens of different human origin obtained in 16 different Italian centres, were assayed for their susceptibilities to different macrolides and to telithromycin, and were investigated by PCR to detect their different erythromycin resistance genes. 25.5% of the S. pyogenes isolates proved resistant to erythromycin, as well as to clarithromycin and azithromycin. 6.6% of the isolates proved non-susceptible to clindamycin. 4.9% of the isolates were non-susceptible to telithromycin. 22.3% of all erythromycin-resistant isolates exhibited cMLS B resistance, 50.3% iMLS B resistance, and 27.4% Mtype resistance. All cMLS B strains had the erm(B) gene, all M strains had the mef (A) gene, and no resistance genes were found in the erythromycin-susceptible strains. Roughly one quarter of the iMLS(B) strains had erm(A) and roughly three quarters erm(B). 35.2% of the S. pneumoniae isolates proved resistant to erythromycin, and virtually all of them also proved resistant to clarithromycin and azithromycin, too. Only 6.0% of the pneumococcal isolates were resistant to penicillin and a further 11.0% were intermediate. Only 0.2% of the isolates were nonsusceptible to telithromycin. 65.9% of all erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates had cMLS B resistance, 18.0% had iMLS B resistance, and 16.1% had M-type resistance. All the MLS B-resistant isolates had an erm(B) gene, and all the M-type isolates had a mef gene. We conclude that macrolide resistance of streptococci still persists in Italy with incidences as high as 40%, more often than not being characterised by the MLS B phenotype. The ketolide telithromycin, structurally related to macrolides and most likely to substitute for them in a number of clinical uses, is confirmed as being extremely active even against recent clinical streptococcal isolates.
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In the period from 1999 to 2005, 9 women and 3 men (age range 44-71 years) with OP were selected for the study. There were 9 non-smokers, 2 smokers and 1 ex-smoker. Open lung biopsy was performed in 5 patients, and in 7 patients diagnosis was established on the basis of transbronchial lung biopsy.
A comparison of agar dilution and microdilution susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobial agents, including roxithromycin, was performed against 48 isolates of Legionella pneumophila. For agar dilution tests, charcoal free agar (BSYE) and charcoal supplemented agar (BCYE) were used. In general, BSYE agar produced lower MICs than BCYE agar, except for imipenem. Microdilution testing data fell between the data obtained for the two agar media. The MBCs were two to sixteen fold higher than the MICs. Prolongation of the incubation time from 48 h to 72 h or growth in 5% CO2 did not influence the results. As tested by the microdilution method, an increase in the inoculum from 10(5) to 10(7) was associated with a two-fold increase in the MIC. Roxithromycin and two other investigational macrolides (A-56268 and rosaramicin) demonstrated better in-vitro activity than erythromycin.
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Insulin injection sites rarely become infected. We report a case of Mycobacterium kansasii infection at the sites of insulin injection.
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To study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with erosive duodenitis (ED), the associated gastric histological lesions and their response to eradication therapy with omeprazole plus two antibiotics.