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A prospective, open-label, randomized study was conducted in order to determine the bacteriologic efficacies of cefaclor and azithromycin in acute otitis media (AOM). Tympanocentesis was performed on entry into the study and 3 to 4 days after initiation of treatment. Bacteriologic failure after 3 to 4 days of treatment with both drugs occurred in a high proportion of culture-positive patients, especially in those in whom AOM was caused by Haemophilus influenzae (16 of 33 [53%] of those treated with azithromycin and 13 of 34 [52%] of those treated with cefaclor). Although a clear correlation of the persistence of the pathogen with increased MICs of the respective drugs could be demonstrated for Streptococcus pneumoniae, no such correlation was found for H. influenzae. It is proposed that susceptibility breakpoints for H. influenzae should be considerably lower than the current ones for both cefaclor and azithromycin for AOM caused by H. influenzae.
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We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, NLM Gateway, Web of Science, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of relevant publications for eligible studies published between 1980 and August 2011.
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Although the overall incidence of infective endocarditis in the paediatric population is considered to be low, over the last 20 years a rising trend in infective endocarditis has been observed among children. This could be due to several reasons including the availability of improved diagnostic techniques, use of continuous central venous catheters and cardiac implants increasing the risk of infection, and the survival of a greater number of infants with congenital heart disease as a result of improved medical management. The predominant causative organisms of paediatric endocarditis include staphylococci and streptococci. There is increased concern surrounding the emergence of endocarditis in children caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and drug resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The treatment approach to paediatric endocarditis is similar to that for adult patients with endocarditis because of similarities in disease pathogenesis and aetiology. The therapeutic goal is to achieve sterilisation of the cardiac vegetations. The choice of antibacterial is dependent upon the susceptibility profile of the causative organism. Vancomycin or gentamicin is recommended for enterococcal endocarditis, according to guidelines from the American Heart Association. For staphylococcal endocarditis in patients with no prosthetic valve, oxacillin or nafcillin with or without gentamicin is the treatment of choice. In the case of endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin is commonly used in patients with no prosthetic valve and a combination of vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin (rifampin) for patients with prosthetic material. Cefazolin or ceftriaxone is the treatment of choice for penicillin allergic paediatric patients with endocarditis caused by viridans streptococci. While there have been no major changes in endocarditis therapy for the last decade, the current focus is on the recognition of multiple-drug resistant pathogens and the use of newer agents such as quinupristin/dalfopristin in the treatment of resistant bacterial endocarditis. Prophylactic antibacterial therapy is recommended for procedures thought to be associated with the occurrence of bacteraemia involving organisms commonly associated with endocarditis. These include dental extractions and oral, respiratory tract, genitourinary, gastrointestinal or oesophageal procedures. Prophylactic antibacterials recommended by the American Heart Association during genitourinary and gastrointestinal surgical procedures in high risk patients include ampicillin + gentamicin or vancomycin + gentamicin in high risk patients with penicillin allergy. Ampicillin has been recommended for prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis in children undergoing oral, respiratory tract or oesophageal procedures. In the case of penicillin allergy in these patients, cephalosporins, clindamycin, azithromycin or clarithromycin have been recommended. The general consensus is that antibacterial prophylaxis during dental procedure is unnecessary, and in fact propagates bacterial resistance.
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After two weeks, the side effects of the drug were: Nausea 8 patients in group A and 7 patients in group B, Diarrhea 2 patients in group A, 3 patients in group B and vomiting 2 patients in group A, 3 patients in group B. There were no serious side effects in any group. Eradication rate in group A was 82.9% (based on per protocol analysis (PPA)) and 84.6 % (intention to treat (ITT)). In group B, eradication rate was 77.1 % (PPA) and 79.5 % (ITT) (P=0.55).
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Erythromycin is a common therapy for acne and rosacea. A newer macrolide, azithromycin, offers superior tissue distribution and cellular concentration and is an effective oral anti-acne agent. Topical formulations such as erythromycin have been a major clinical therapy for acne. To date, no topical solution of azithromycin is available for the treatment of acne.
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Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. To probe the molecular basis of this phenomenon, the genetic and phenotypic features of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella strains isolated from food samples were characterized. Among the 82 Salmonella strains tested, resistance rate of the three front line antibiotics of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin was 10%, 39% and 25% respectively, which is significantly higher than that reported in other countries. Ciprofloxacin resistant strains typically exhibited cross-resistance to multiple antibiotics including ceftriaxone, primarily due to the presence of multiple PMQR genes and the blaCTX-M-65, blaCTX-M-55 blaCMY-2 and blaCMY-72 elements. The prevalence rate of the oqxAB and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were 91% and 75% respectively, followed by qnrS (66%), qnrB (16%) and qnrD (3%). The most common PMQR combination observable was aac(6')-Ib-cr-oqxAB-qnrS2, which accounted for 50% of the ciprofloxacin resistant strains. Interestingly, such isolates contained either no target mutations or only a single gyrA mutation. Conjugation and hybridization experiments suggested that most PMQR genes were located either in the chromosome or a non-transferrable plasmid. To summarize, findings in this work suggested that PMQRs greatly facilitate development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella by abolishing the requirement of target gene mutations.
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The conclusion of the study is that antimicrobials, except ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, remain good empiric choices against H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.
To assess the efficacy of topical 1.5% azithromycin in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic blepharitis and to compare the efficacy of two different treatment modalities.