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HS identified azithromycin refractory patients significantly earlier than OS, possibly facilitating aggressive treatment escalation that may improve long-term outcome. Treatment response to azithromycin should be assessed 4 weeks after initiation. Responders demonstrated best survival, with even transient response conferring benefit. Macrolide-refractory BOS carried the worst prognosis.
Azithromycin, combined with omeprazole and metronidazole, the cure rate of H. pylori was about 70%. The cure of H. pylori infection improves the activity of gastritis.
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AMCNS-S (or AMCNS-L) had high bioavailability, for example, the oral (or intravenous) relative bioavailability of AMCNS-S (or AMCNS-L) to free AM increased to 273.19% (or 163.50%). After intravenous administration, AMCNS-S (or AMCNS-L) had obvious lung targeting efficiency, for example, the lung AM concentration of AMCNS-S (or AMCNS-L) increased 16 (or 28) times that of free AM at 12 h; the AM concentration of AMCNS-S (or AMCNS-L) in lung was higher than that in heart and kidney all the time.
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Mycoplasma genitalium is a common cause of nongonococcal urethritis. Treatment trials have shown that doxycycline is inefficient, whereas a 5-day course of azithromycin eradicates the bacterium from 95% of infected men. The aim of the study was to establish the reason for the occasional treatment failures.
We analyzed the ED component of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 1995 through 2009. Yearly rates of visits involving the prescription of QT-prolonging medications were determined. Multivariate regression analyses identified factors associated with the prescription of two or more QT-prolonging medications.
When antibiotic therapy is needed for odontogenic infections in children and adolescents, the most active empirical therapeutic choice is co-amoxiclav with high doses of amoxicillin. Clindamycin can be used as an alternative option. These results should be confirmed in clinical trials, in which the PK/PD approach could be useful for the design and assessment of results.
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We define the prevalence and dynamics of resistance markers to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones in 1102 resistant and susceptible clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 2000 to 2013 via the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project.
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Because ERY blood concentrations were not measured, effects of RIF on ERY-induced anhidrosis could not definitively be ascribed to altered ERY bioavailability.
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In this community-based safety surveillance study, the advanced-generation fluoroquinolone gatifloxacin was administered empirically to 15625 adults with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including 1562 clinically evaluable patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 2391 with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Haemophilus influenzae was the most common pathogen isolated in AECB (40.1%) and the second most common in CAP (36.8%). In vitro susceptibility to gatifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime axetil, tetracycline, and azithromycin ranged from 95.8% to 100%. In comparison, a significant percentage of the isolates were not susceptible to clarithromycin ( approximately 41%), ampicillin (22% to 28%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14% to 18%). The susceptibility pattern was generally independent of exposure to another antimicrobial in the previous 30 days. CAP and AECB patients infected with H. influenzae had signs and symptoms similar to those infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Among clinically evaluable patients with H. influenzae, gatifloxacin cured 159 of 166 (95.8%) with AECB and 112 of 118 (94.9%) with CAP. The cure rate was independent of the beta-lactamase status or serotype of the H. influenzae strain. H. influenzae is not a more benign pathogen in community-acquired RTIs but causes signs and symptoms that are indistinguishable from those caused by other pathogens, notably S. pneumoniae.
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A wide variety of antibacterial compounds is rapidly oxidized by 03 and hydroxyl radical (*OH) during aqueous ozonation. Quantitative microbiological assays have been developed here or adapted from existing methods and utilized to measure the resulting changes in antibacterial potencies during O3 and *OH treatment of 13 antibacterial molecules (roxithromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, penicillin G, cephalexin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, lincomycin,tetracycline, vancomycin, and amikacin) from 9 structural classes (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, beta-lactams, sulfonamides, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, lincosamides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, and aminoglycosides), as well as the biocide triclosan. Potency measurements were determined from dose-response relationships obtained by exposing Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis reference strains to treated samples of each antibacterial compound via broth micro- or macrodilution assays and related to the measured residual concentrations of parent antibacterial in each sample. Data obtained from these experiments show that O3 and *OH reactions lead in nearly all cases to stoichiometric elimination of antibacterial activity (i.e., loss of 1 mole equivalent of potency per mole of parent compound consumed). The beta-lactams penicillin G (PG) and cephalexin (CP) represent the only clear exceptions, as bioassay measurements indicate that biologically active products may be formed in the reactions of these two compounds with both O3 and *OH. The active product(s) generated in the direct reaction of O3 with PG appear(s) to be recalcitrant to further transformation by O3, though any biologically active products formed in the reactions of CP with O3, or of either PG or CP with *OH, are apparently deactivated by further reactions with O3 or *OH, respectively. Thus, with few exceptions, it can be expected that municipal wastewater ozonation will generally yield sufficient structural modification of antibacterial molecules to eliminate their antibacterial activities, whether oxidation results from selective reactions with O3 or from relatively nonselective reactions with incidentally produced OH.
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A total of 51 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia were enrolled: 27 treated with azithromycin (500 mg once a day for 3 days), and 24 with roxithromycin (150 mg every 12 hours for 7 days). The two regimens were equally effective, with clinical cure in 80% and 72% of patients respectively. Bacteriological eradication on day 19-23 was obtained in 7/11 cases (64%) and in 6/13 cases (46%) in the two groups, respectively. No side effects occurred in patients treated with azithromycin, while they occurred in the roxithromycin group (2 vomiting and 1 gastritis). Clinical and bacteriological efficacy, excellent tolerability, simplified dosage (single daily dose) and short-course (3 days) therapeutic regimen make azithromycin, in our experience, efficacious for the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia.