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The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin versus amoxicillin-clavulanate plus roxithromycin (comparator) in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with risk factors. In this comparative, randomized, multicenter, open-label study, patients hospitalized for CAP received a 10-day oral treatment with either moxifloxacin (400 mg o.d.) or amoxicillin-clavulanate (1,000/125 mg t.i.d.) plus roxithromycin (150 mg b.i.d.). Clinical and bacteriological outcomes were assessed during test of cure and follow-up visits (5-7 days and 21-28 days after the end of treatment, respectively). Of 349 randomized patients, 346 were included in the intent-to-treat analysis and 289 in the per-protocol analysis. Their baseline characteristics were comparable. The most frequent risk factors for mortality were age >65 years (50.0%), alcoholism (23.1%), and comorbidities (50.6%); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (25.4%) and diabetes mellitus (13.6%) were the most common associated comorbidities. A causative pathogen was documented in 66 of 346 (19.1%) of the patients (including 21 with positive blood cultures). Respective per-protocol clinical success rates at test-of-cure (primary efficacy endpoint) for moxifloxacin and comparator were 131 of 151 (86.8%) and 120 of 138 (87.0%), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of -8.0-7.6 for the difference. Bacteriological success rates (eradication) were 23 of 30 (76.7%) and 23 of 31 (74.2%); rates for patients with positive blood cultures were 10 of 14 and 4 of 6. Persistent clinical success rates at follow-up were 118 of 120 (98.3%) and 102 of 106 (96.2%), with a 95%CI of -2.2-6.4 for the difference. The intent-to-treat analysis confirmed these results. Adverse events associated with moxifloxacin and the comparator drug were reported for 42 of 171 (24.6%) and 50 of 175 (28.6%) of the patients, respectively, and comprised predominantly digestive disorders, which occurred in 9.4% and 21.1%. On the basis of these results, once-daily oral moxifloxacin alone is as effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate plus roxithromycin for the treatment of CAP in patients with risk factors.
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We tested for antimicrobial susceptibility of 1,317 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae at a pediatric facility during 2004-2008. The percentage distribution of beta-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-sensitive strain (BLNAS) was 47.8%, that of beta-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant strain (BLNAR) 32.7% that of intermediately resistant strain (BLNAI) 8.9% that of beta-lactamase producing ABPC resistant strain (BLPAR) 6.8% and that of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin resistant strain (BLPACR) 3.7%. BLNAR prevalence was 30% between 2005 and 2008, increasing slowly. Though reduced susceptibility was seen in most beta-lactams, piperacillin and tazobactam/piperacillin showed good susceptibility for H. influenzae. Of 1,317 strains, 83 (6.3%) were serotype b (Hib). The frequency of Hib was high in sterilized site.
When we look at the eradication rates of the treatment groups, only two groups (ranitidine bismuth citrate and rabeprazole groups) had eradication rates greater than 80%, both at intention to treat and per protocol analyses. The other four groups (omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole groups) showed statistically significant lower eradication rates both at intention to treat (between 57.6 and 66.7%) and per protocol (between 60.3 and 72.1%) analyses when compared with ranitidine bismuth citrate and rabeprazole groups (p<.05).
One patient was excluded from control group. Pain perception, InIn, and ExIn were not different between groups at each time point. However, these variables were different from the previous time point within each group.
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The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate: a) expenditure for antibiotics with respect to the total pharmacy drug budget and to costs of other medical devices; b) the most frequently used antimicrobial classes and molecules; c) the clinical units that most frequently use antimicrobial therapy; d) the preferred route of administration; e) consumption patterns of antibiotics over two periods (January-September 1999 and January-September 2000). The consumption of a single antimicrobial agent was expressed as daily defined doses (DDD) per 100 bed days. In 1999 drugs accounted for 56% of the total costs but decreased to 46% in 2000. Antibiotics accounted for 15% of the pharmacy's overall acquisition costs in 1999 and dropped to 13% in 2000. In both 1999 and 2000, penicillins were used most, followed by cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. In 1999, the most frequently used antibiotic was amoxicillin (4.02 DDD per 100 bed days) followed by ceftazidime, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and co-amoxiclav. In 2000 ceftriaxone was the most commonly used antibiotic (4.35 DDD per 100 bed days) followed by co-amoxiclav, amoxicillin, ceftazidime. The general surgery, medical therapy and infectious diseases units accounted for the majority of penicillin consumption, while cephalosporins were most widely used in general surgery, orthopedics and neurosurgery units. Parenteral administration was the most widely used route in both years.
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An Internet search was performed using PubMed and the ULAKBIM Turkish Medical Database. The terms "primary antibiotic resistance (separately; amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline) of H. pylori" with and without "Turkey" or "different geographical regions of Turkey" were searched among articles published in both English and Turkish language within the time span from 1999 to 2015. Data analysis was performed using MedCalc 12.7.0. Each article was weighted according to the number of isolated H. pylori strains. Pooled proportion analysis was performed.
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Of the 1,921 patients, 1,759 underwent PST and 157 did not; 5 medical records were not available for review. The mean patient age was 60 years. Sixty-four patients (4%) had a positive PST reaction; of these, 53 (83%) were females and 11 (17%) were males (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.9-7.2; P < .001). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, history of multiple drug allergies, and elapsed time from the initial penicillin adverse drug reaction to PST, female sex again had a significant risk of a positive PST reaction (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-6.7; P = .001).
Diarrhea is the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS. We conducted at the Fann National University Hospital in Dakar, a study of all patients living with HIV, hospitalized in the the Clinical service of Infectious Diseases from 1 January 2003 to December 31, 2006, with diarrhea and having received an bacteriological and / or a parasitological examination of stools. The aim of this study was to identify the various pathogens isolated in the laboratory and responsible for those diarrhea. In total, 351 patients were collected, their average age was 39.93 years and the extreme ages 15 and 72 years. HIV1 serological profile was found in 90.77% of patients; 34.42% of patients received a dosage of CD4 count, among them 21.09% had a rate <200/mm3. Fifteen stool cultures were positive with the following breakdown: - Shigella (10 strains): 7 strains of Shigella flexneri, 2 of Shigella sp, one of Shigella sonnei; antibiotics most active on the Shigella strains were third generation cephalosporins and quinolones. - Salmonella (5 strains) with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis, strains sensitive to an association of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, to cephalosporins and to ciprofloxacin. 289 patients received a parasitological examination of the stools (KOP) and the positive number of KOP was 90 a 30,14% rate. The parasites most frequently found were: Cryptosporidium parvum, representing 10.38% of positive KOP, Isospora belli 6.23%, and Entamoeba coli 5.19%. These parasites were found predominantly in patients infected with HIV1 (61 cases/90). Cases of cobacterial and parasitic co-infections were also found. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death among people living with HIV. The etiologies of diarrhea, multiple, are yet to be identified and this should go through an improvement of the technical capacity and quality of our laboratories.
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A systematic search by Medline online database was performed. Abstracts behind appropriate titles were studied and finally the full articles were evaluated for their strength of evidence in the aetiology of MIH.
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A total of 400 non-duplicate clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group collected from 2000 to 2002 were studied. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the reference agar dilution method described by the NCCLS. The following antimicrobials were tested: tigecycline, clindamycin, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, imipenem, amoxicillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam.
The overall ratio of confirmed/suspected ADRs was high (35/80). The most commonly reported drug was amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4 cases). With regard to causality, 2 suspected cases were classified as definite and 14 as probable. The distribution according to the severity of hepatotoxicity was 6 severe and 29 mild cases. The incidence of hepatotoxic ADRs/100,000 inhabitants as revealed by our method was much higher versus voluntary report (6.74 and 1.79, respectively).
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After initial treatment failure with a PPI plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin, 169 patients were randomized to a PPI (rabeprazole, lansoprazole, or omeprazole) plus amoxicillin and metronidazole given b.i.d. for 7 days.