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Clostridium difficile is the major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea with the potential risk of progressing to severe clinical outcomes including death. It is not unusual for Clostridium difficile infection to progress to complications of toxic megacolon, bowel perforation and even Gram-negative sepsis following pathological changes in the intestinal mucosa. These complications are however less commonly seen in community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection than in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection of its type seen in Jamaica.
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Botryomycosis is exceedingly rare in the head and neck, and consideration of this entity in the differential diagnosis is critical to the diagnosis. The mainstay of therapy is medical with surgery reserved for biopsy and/or excision of persistent disease. Published 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Dental infections resulting before or after third molar removal are complications in which the maxillofacial surgeon may have to initiate an earlier management. The severe dental infections resulting before or after this procedure is one of the few life-threatening complications in which the maxillofacial surgeon may have to initiate an earlier management. Infections involving the temporal space are rare and infrequently reported. Infections in this space have also been observed secondary to maxillary sinusitis, maxillary sinus fracture, temporomandibular arthroscopy, and drug injection, although more commonly associated to third molar infections.
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From October 1993 till October 1994, 115 oxacillin resistant Staphylococus aureus strains were isolated in the laboratory of a teaching hospital. This was 2.4% of all of the Staphylococcus aureus strains. The bacteria were isolated from 30 patients, 7 medical personnel and in the environment of the infected patients. Most of the isolates were cultured from blood cultures, wound swabs and drains. If the referring hospitals has been informed about the MRSA status of the patients, several transmissions could have been prevented. In 10 infected patients, the MRSA strains were isolated from the nose, throat and hands. The isolates were also found on the hands of several personnel and in the patients environment, suggesting that the strains had been widely spread. The MRSA strains predominated in the medical and surgical intensive care units and in 2 general surgical wards. They were only found sporadically in other departments (Ophthalmology, Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Urology). MRSA-strains were more resistant to imipenem, ofloxacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin as oxacillin-sensitive Straphylococcus aureus strains. Genotyping (Restriction-Fragment-Length-Polymorphism) revealed six different strain patterns. The same RFLP types were mainly found on different wards. We conclude that various clones of MRSA may have emerged independently within one hospital and that their spread between wards was remarkably limited. Subsequent intensive hygiene measures have been successful in reducing the number of new isolates.
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Of 70 strains, 67.2% were classified as serotypes included in the heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, as were all penicillin-resistant strains.
All cases of necrotizing fasciitis between 2001 and 2006 were reviewed. All patients were taken for surgical debridement. MRSA patients were identified and compared with the non-MRSA patients to identify any clinical variables that impacted incidence or severity of disease. A P value of less than .05 was considered significant.
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: One hundred twenty-two charts were reviewed, 68 pre-PCV and 54 post-PCV. Etiological agents were determined by culture results in 60 patients. The most common bacterial isolates were Streptococcus pneumoniae (24), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12), Staphylococcus aureus (12), Streptococcus pyogenes (8), and Haemophilus influenzae (2). There was no reduction in mastoiditis due to S. pneumoniae from the pre-PCV to the post-PCV eras (odds ratio [OR], 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-2.1; P = 0.77). Ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility was seen in 30% of post-PCV S. pneumoniae isolates compared with 7% of pre-PCV isolates. Acute mastoiditis was diagnosed in 93 patients, and chronic mastoiditis (defined as >or=3 wk of symptoms) was diagnosed in 29 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae was more likely to be implicated in acute versus chronic mastoiditis (OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 1.2-52.2; P = 0.01). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more frequently implicated in chronic versus acute mastoiditis (OR, 16.4; 95% CI, 2.1-75.8; P = 0.0003).
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Skin biopsies were obtained from six laboratory beagles before, 3, 6 and 12 h after the first and the fifth dose of clindamycin at the former regimen, as well as before, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after the first and third dose at the latter regimen. Tissue was homogenized and clindamycin concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results were analyzed using Student's t-test at a level of significance of 0.05.
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Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as an important cause of staphylococcal infections, but there have been little data on whether CA-MRSA causes health care-associated infections.
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While approximately one-fifth of patients were switched from IV to PO antibiotics in the UAE, there were clear opportunities for further optimization of health care resource use. Over half of UAE patients hospitalized for MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections could be eligible for ES, with one-third eligible for ED opportunities, resulting in substantial potential for reductions in IV days and bed days.