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clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00792922.
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CAD patients (n=302) seropositive to C pneumoniae (IgG titers >/=1:16) were randomized to placebo or azithromycin 500 mg/d for 3 days and then 500 mg/wk for 3 months. The primary clinical end point included cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, unstable angina, and unplanned coronary revascularization at 2 years. Treatment groups were balanced, and azithromycin was generally well tolerated. During the trial, 47 first primary events occurred (cardiovascular death, 9; resuscitated cardiac arrest, 1; MI, 11; stroke, 3; unstable angina, 4; and unplanned coronary revascularization, 19), with 22 events in the azithromycin group and 25 in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in the 1 primary end point between the 2 groups (hazard ratio for azithromycin, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.61; P:=0.74). Events included 9 versus 7 occurring within 6 months and 13 versus 18 between 6 and 24 months in the azithromycin and placebo groups, respectively.
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Travel to South Asia, followed by sub-Saharan Africa and South America, carries the highest risk for diarrheal syndromes in returned travelers. Women are more susceptible to travel-related diarrhea than men. Host genetic studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lactoferrin, osteoprotegerin, and IL-10 genes are associated with small but increased risks for diarrhea and enteric pathogens. Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis is likely to be a new agent identified as causing travelers' diarrhea, and heat-stable toxin-producing Escherichia coli appears to be more common than heat-labile toxin E. coli. Overall levels of sanitation at the travel destination, including individual eating establishments, are strong predictors for acquisition of travelers' diarrhea. A new transdermal LT vaccine shows promise in modifying the severity of travelers' diarrhea. It remains uncertain whether prophylaxis or prompt self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea will prevent late-onset irritable bowel syndrome. For self-treatment, azithromycin is the drug of choice in travelers to areas where there is a high risk of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter spp., such as South and Southeast Asia and possibly North Africa, Central and South America.
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the combined in-vitro effects of azithromycin plus the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin or lomefloxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. METHODS: Fractional inhibitory (FIC) and fractional bactericidal concentration indices of azithromycin and the fluoroquinolone were determined using a microtiter-checkerboard method. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, Xanthomonas maltophilia and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were studied. Fourteen strains of S. aureus were also studied in time-kill curves with azithromycin (4 mg/L), lomefloxacin (6 mg/L) and the two in combination. RESULTS: No synergism or antagonism was found in inhibitory assays. However, bactericidal assays revealed antagonism with some strains of S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, X. maltophilia, A. calcoaceticus, P. aeruginosa, P. cepacia, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. Kill-curve results with 14 strains of S. aureus showed no antagonism with four strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and antagonism with one strain of MRSA and seven methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). CONCLUSIONS: In-vitro exposure to combinations of azithromycin and a fluoroquinolone does not produce a synergistic effect. Antagonism was found in bactericidal assays against some gram-negative bacteria and MSSA; caution is therefore recommended in the use of macrolides and quinolones against these organisms.
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Data were analyzed from 4825 persons aged > or =13 years with HIV infection enrolled from 4 outpatient facilities from 1990 to 1998. The association between P aeruginosa infection and demographic, risk behavior, and clinical factors was assessed.
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Present treatment schedules for lower genital tract infections are far from ideal. Members of the 4-quinolone antibiotic class are highly active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and some of the newer agents are active against Chlamydia trachomatis. Clinical success has been reported with, for example, a single daily dose of ofloxacin for one week. New macrolides are active against C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Azithromycin has been shown to be effective in a single oral dose. The role of newer agents in the therapy of bacterial vaginosis is largely unproven, but there are encouraging signs. The importance of attempting to make a firm diagnosis is emphasized.
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Lung diseases caused by surfactant protein C (SFTPC) mutations are inherited as autosomal traits with variable penetrance and severity or as sporadic disease caused by a de novo mutation on one allele. Here, we report the case of a child surviving with a homozygous surfactant protein C mutation after aggressive clinical management unlike his six siblings who died in infancy. This presentation raises the suspicion of an autosomal recessive inheritance that is discussed in this report.
Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. We tested the hypothesis that azithromycin would decrease the frequency of exacerbations, increase lung function, and improve health-related quality of life in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.
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A total of 14 trials randomised individuals with trachoma to oral antibiotic, topical antibiotic, both, or control (no treatment or placebo) and were eligible for inclusion in this review (n = 3587). Overall, the quality of the evidence provided from these trials was low. Nine of the trials compared antibiotic treatment to control. Most of the studies found a beneficial effect of treatment on active trachoma and ocular chlamydial infection at three and 12 months follow up. There was considerable clinical and statistical heterogeneity between trials, which meant that it was difficult to reliably estimate the size of the treatment effect. It is likely to be in the region of a 20% relative risk reduction. Seven of the 14 trials compared the effectiveness of oral and topical antibiotics. There was no consistent evidence as to whether oral or topical antibiotics were more effective, although one trial suggested that a single dose of oral azithromycin was significantly more effective than unsupervised use of topical tetracyclineA further eight trials assessed the effectiveness of community-based treatment. In five trials antibiotic treatment was compared to no (or delayed) treatment (57 communities), and in three trials oral antibiotic was compared to topical treatment (12 communities). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable but at least one trial was considered to provide high quality evidence. There was evidence that community-based antibiotic treatment reduced the prevalence of active trachoma and ocular infection 12 months after single-dose treatment. There was some evidence that oral azithromycin was more effective than topical tetracycline as a community treatment. Data on adverse effects were not consistently reported however there were no reported serious adverse events associated with treatment with oral azithromycin or topical tetracycline; in one sample survey of 671 people treated with azithromycin between 10% and 15% experienced gastrointestinal adverse effects (nausea or vomiting, or both).