The goals of the study were to compare the cost-effectiveness of "gold standard" care (GS), syndromic management (SM), and mass treatment (MT) protocols for the treatment of cervical gonococcal and chlamydial infections in a hypothetical model of 1 million women in Africa.
Babesiosis is a tick-borne zoonosis. Human cases of babesiosis occur worldwide but have been mainly described in North America and rarely in Europe. The disease manifestations show a broad clinical spectrum including a malaria-like syndrome. Fulminant and life-threatening infections have been described in the setting of asplenia and/or immunosuppression.
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The in vitro activity of CEM-101, a new fluoroketolide, was determined against Gram-positive organisms with various macrolide susceptibility profiles. Experiments for determination of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), timed killing, single-step and multistep mutation rates, the erythromycin induction of resistance, postantibiotic effect (PAE), and drug interactions were performed for CEM-101; and the results were compared to those obtained with telithromycin, macrolides, and lincosamides. The MBCs of CEM-101 remained lower overall than those of telithromycin, and CEM-101 displayed a 2-fold greater potency than the ketolide. Timed-killing curve testing showed that CEM-101 had greater bactericidal activity than telithromycin (a >or=3-log(10)-CFU/ml decrease in the initial inoculum at 24 h) against the staphylococcal isolates tested. The propensity of CEM-101 to cause resistance was low, as determined from the rates of resistance determined in single-step mutational studies (<10(-8) or 10(-9)). In multipassaging studies, mutants of two strains (both of which were USA300 isolates) resistant to CEM-101 emerged. That number was comparable to the number resistant to clindamycin but less than the number resistant to telithromycin. Erythromycin induced CEM-101 resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, similar to telithromycin; however, in seven of eight beta-hemolytic streptococci, CEM-101 resistance induction was not observed. CEM-101 showed a significant concentration- and exposure-dependent PAE against the strains tested, with the values ranging from 2.3 to 6.1 h for Gram-positive organisms (these times were longer than those for telithromycin). No antagonism was found in synergy analyses, with enhanced inhibition being most noted for combinations with CEM-101 and ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Overall, this new antimicrobial agent (CEM-101) showed good antimicrobial characteristics compared with those of the agents in its class and exhibited measured parameter values similar or superior to those of utilized comparators, indicating that CEM-101 warrants further clinical evaluation.
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The majority of the members of the SECIB were selecting the appropriate antibiotic for use in endodontic infections, but there are still many who are prescribing antibiotics inappropriately. The use of antibiotics for minor infections, or in some cases in patients without infections, could be a major contributor to the world problem of antimicrobial resistance.
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Male urethritis is a common disease for urologists, with the most common pathogens being, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. When the tests fail to detect these pathogens, the presented urethritis is called non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis. Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the pathogens for non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis. The test for detecting M. genitalium, which is commercially available in Japan, is not accepted by the Japanese insurance system now. The detection rate of M. genitalium from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis is 10-20% in Japan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for M. genitalium showed that macrolide has the strongest activity and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tetracyclines were not substantially lower. Some kinds of fluoroquinolones, such as sitafloxacin and moxifloxacin, have stronger activities against M. genitalium. For non-gonococcal urethritis, macrolides and tetracycline are recommended in some guidelines. In clinical studies, tetracyclines are less effective against M. genitalium than azithromycin, and azithromycin regimens including 1 g stat or 2 g stat are now recommended for urethritis with M. genitalium. However, macrolide-resistant M. genitalium strains have recently emerged and are spreading worldwide. This macrolide-resistance is closely related to mutations on the 23S rRNA gene. Sitafloxacin and moxifloxacin have shown good efficacies for M. genitalium in some clinical studies. If the azithromycin regimens fail, we must consider the use of fluoroquinolones, such as sitafloxacin, in Japan. The most important issues include the acceptance of M. genitalium examinations by the national insurance system and the individual treatment of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in the not-too-distant future.
Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach is widespread among human populations and is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as peptic ulcer, adenocarcinoma, and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach. To increase H. pylori eradication rate without increasing bacterial resistance, various regimens have been recommended. Commonly the association of at least two antibiotics with a proton-pump inhibitor is used. The treatment regimens for second-line therapy, suggested in studies from the western world may not be ideal in Iran.
The seroprevalence of HIV-1 among 543 FSWs screened was 30%. HIV infection was significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea, and the presence of a genital ulcer. Regular douching was reported by 72% of the women, of whom the majority inserted fluids in the vagina, generally after each sexual intercourse. Water with soap was the fluid most often used (81%), followed by salty water (18%), water alone (9%), and a commercial antiseptic (5%). Douching in general and douching with soap and water were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04 respectively). There was a significant trend for increased frequency of douching and higher prevalence of BV. There was no direct relation observed between douching and risk for HIV infection or other STIs.
Azithromycin 1% provided high concentrations (peak level, 559.7 μg/g) in human conjunctiva that were sustained at levels 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of moxifloxacin 0.5% throughout the 7-day dosing period and for at least 7 days thereafter. Azithromycin also showed an extended half-life (65.7 hours) in conjunctiva relative to that of moxifloxacin (28.6 hours). Accordingly, the concentration of azithromycin was maintained well above the minimum inhibitory concentration required for inhibition of growth of 90% of tested bacterial isolates for at least 7 days, whereas moxifloxacin conjunctival levels fell to levels at or less than the minimum inhibitory concentration required for inhibition of growth of 90% of tested bacterial isolates approximately 24 hours after the last dose. Peak aqueous humor concentration of moxifloxacin was higher (0.77 μg/mL) than that of azithromycin (0.053 μg/mL). No clinically relevant safety findings were observed.
All urogenital samples obtained from patients visiting a general practitioner or hospital in the east of the Netherlands that tested positive using the routine M. genitalium real-time PCR (February 2012-November 2014) were included. Following a PCR targeting the 23S rRNA gene, sequencing of the PCR fragments was performed to identify possible macrolide resistance-associated mutations.
A gestational age algorithm based upon electronic health plan data correctly classified medication exposure status in most live born deliveries, but trimester-specific misclassification may be higher for drugs typically used for short durations.