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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a modeled microgravity environment on the antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii.
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To evaluate the risk of developing pulmonary edema in women exposed to nifedipine, magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), or both in a preterm setting.
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To determine if postoperative treatment with azithromycin compared with topical tetracycline reduces recurrence up to 1 year, and if azithromycin treatment of household members provides additional benefit compared with treating only the surgical patient.
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Subgingival plaque samples from adult patients with periodontitis were collected and cultured on selective and non-selective plates. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Micromonas micros were isolated and used for minimal inhibitory concentration tests using the Epsilometer (E-test) technique. Eight different antibiotics were tested on all bacterial isolates. MIC50 and MIC90 values for each antibiotic and each species were determined and the percentage of resistant strains was calculated.
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Despite the fact that about 20% of early syphilis patients had increases in RPR titers immediately after treatment, these changes rarely influenced assessment of therapeutic outcome. Only 3% of patients treated would have been reclassified.
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We evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 42 Salmonella isolates from February 2012 through January 2013. We also determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of azithromycin against Salmonella isolates and compared them with corresponding disc diffusion sizes. Entire 42 isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, 41 (97.6%) were sensitive to cotrimoxazole and amoxicillin each. MICs for azithromycin ranged from 2 μg/ml to 24 μg/ml, corresponding zone diameters ranged from 15 mm to 33 mm and the two were significantly correlated (P = 0.001). Our results indicate that whereas, azithromycin is a potential therapeutic option, the sensitivity to the first line drugs and absence of multidrug resistance reinforce the concept of antimicrobial recycling.
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Azithromycin, clarithromycin and telithromycin gave a >/=4-fold increase in 20, 20 and 10 streptococcus strains, in 4, 5 and 0 H. influenzae strains and in 2, 7 and 4 M. catarrhalis strains, respectively. After 10 passages on antibiotic-free plates, 21/26 strains for azithromycin, 22/32 for clarithromycin and 1/14 for telithromycin maintained high MIC values. In single-step studies, the frequency of mutations was <10(-10) for H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis for telithromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin. Telithromycin induced mutations at a lower rate than azithromycin and clarithromycin in streptococcal strains.
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Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, oleandomycin, triacetyloleandomycin, azithromycin, josamycin and midecamycin were investigated using 200 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinically isolated in Japan during 1996. The results show that the MRSAs could be classified into five groups according to MIC patterns to various macrolides and that more than 88% of the strains used were highly-resistant to all macrolides tested. It was found that 9.0% of the strains examined showed a unique MIC pattern different to that of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotic resistance type. This group was found to be highly resistant to 14-membered but susceptible to 16-membered macrolides. The resistance induction by erythromycin or oleandomycin was observed to increase for clarithromycin and roxithromycin resistances in a part of strains used. On the other hand, for azithromycin, such induction was not observed.