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Compared with nonmacrolide antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics were not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia (0.03% v. 0.03%; relative risk [RR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.36) and were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (0.62% v. 0.76%; RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.86). These associations were similar in all subgroups.
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The bronchopulmonary and plasma pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin (CLA; 500 mg given twice daily for nine doses) or azithromycin (AZ; 500 mg for the first dose and then 250 mg once daily for four doses) were assessed in 41 healthy nonsmokers. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at 4, 8, 12, or 24 h after administration of the last dose. The concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation) of CLA, 14-hydroxyclarithromycin, and AZ were measured in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophage (AM) cells by high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The concentrations of CLA achieved in ELF were 34.02 +/- 5.16 micrograms/ml at 4 h, 20.63 +/- 4.49 micrograms/ml at 8 h, 23.01 +/- 11.9 micrograms/ml at 12 h, and 4.17 +/- 0.29 microgram/ml at 24 h, whereas at the same time points AZ concentrations remained below the limit of assay sensitivity (0.01 microgram/ml) for all but two subjects. The concentrations of CLA in the AM cells were significantly higher than those of AZ at 8 h (703 +/- 235 and 388 +/- 53 micrograms/ml, respectively). However, the ratio of the concentration in AM cells/concentration in plasma was significantly higher for AZ than for CLA for all time points because of the lower concentration of AZ in plasma. These results indicate that while AZ has higher tissue concentration to plasma ratios, as shown by other investigators, the absolute concentrations of CLA in AM cells and ELF are higher for up to 8 and 12 h, respectively, after administration of the last dose.
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Incisional biopsy was performed in February 2007. The tumor was histologically an extranodal MALT lymphoma. DNA testing for Chlamydophila trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumonia was negative. Systemic treatment was started with doxycycline (200 mg daily). After six weeks, the tumour was slightly smaller. Azithromycin 500 mg once a week was added. 18 months after initiation of the treatment, the tumour had completely regressed. A second sample taking in the former tumor area showed tumor-free conjunctiva and subconjunctival tissue. As a precaution, the combined antibiotic therapy was continued for 10 months and the patient was followed for five more years. The lymphoma did not relapse in the conjunctiva and orbit or in the whole body.
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Chlamydia pneumoniae was eradicated from the nasopharynges of 26 of 33 (78.8%) evaluable children and adults with community-acquired pneumonia who were treated with azithromycin. We tested 55 isolates of C. pneumoniae obtained from 46 of these patients against azithromycin. The MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited and the minimal chlamydiacidal concentration at which 90% of strains tested were killed of azithromycin for these isolates were both 0.5 microg/ml. Seven patients remained culture positive after treatment. The MICs of azithromycin for isolates from two patients increased fourfold after therapy. However, all the patients with persistent infection improved clinically. Further studies of treatment of C. pneumoniae infection, utilizing culture, are needed both to assess efficacy and to monitor for the possible development of antibiotic resistance.
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The in vitro activity of azithromycin (CP 62,993 or XZ-450) against Haemophilus influenzae was greater than that of three other macrolides. However, azithromycin was four- to eightfold less active than erythromycin against the gram-positive cocci and against Listeria monocytogenes. Erythromycin and azithromycin were similar in their activity against Legionella pneumophila, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Branhamella catarrhalis.
Isolates were identified by standard biochemical reactions and confirmed by slide agglutination using specific antisera. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and by E-test.
To assess the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of azithromycin in acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). In this open-label, prospective, multi-center, non-interventional study in bacterial URTI, the decision to prescribe azithromycin was independent of enrolment. Follow up was 1 week after treatment and if possible, at Week 2. Investigators' assessment of clinical outcome (Success/Failure) at the end of study was the primary endpoint for efficacy analysis. Clinical outcome of 'Success' was defined as the global response of Cure or Improvement. A pharmacoeconomic analysis of management of URTIs was also attempted. Of the 410 patients recruited, all were evaluated for safety and 278 for efficacy. The median treatment duration was 3 days. Following treatment with azithromycin, overall success rate was 98.92% (95% CI 96.88-99.78%; Clopper-Pearson method). The success rate was similar across the sub-groups of acute otitis media-100%, bacterial sinusitis-95.83%, and pharyngotonsillitis-99.38%. The success rate was 100% among children and adolescents (age ≤18 years) and 98.6% among adults (age >18 years). Most of the common signs and symptoms of URTI reported during baseline, significantly improved at the end of the study. Sixteen (3.90%) patients reported treatment emergent adverse events, the most common being diarrhea-5 (1.2%) and flatulence-2 (0.5%). The average cost of treating bacterial URTI was INR 716 per patient. Azithromycin is effective and well tolerated in Indian patients with bacterial URTIs.
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The aim of our study was to investigate whether two potent anti-inflammatory agents, dexamethasone and anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist, may influence acute kidney injury (AKI) and associated drug excretory functions during endotoxemia (LPS) in rats. Ten hours after LPS administration, untreated endotoxemic rats developed typical symptoms of AKI, with reduced GFR, impaired tubular excretion of urea and sodium, and decreased urinary excretion of azithromycin, an anionic substrate for multidrug resistance-transporting proteins. Administration of both immunosuppressants attenuated the inflammatory response, liver damage, AKI, and increased renal clearance of azithromycin mainly by restoration of GFR, without significant influence on its tubular secretion. The lack of such an effect was related to the differential effect of both agents on the renal expression of individual drug transporters. Only dexamethasone increased the urinary clearance of bile acids, in accordance with the reduction of the apical transporter (Asbt) for their tubular reabsorption. In summary, our data demonstrated the potency of both agents used for the prevention of AKI, imposed by endotoxins, and for the restoration of renal drug elimination, mainly by the improvement of GFR. The influence of both drugs on altered tubular functions and the expression of drug transporters was differential, emphasizing the necessity of knowledge of transporting pathways for individual drugs applied during sepsis. The effect of anakinra suggests a significant contribution of IL-1 signaling to the pathogenesis of LPS-induced AKI.
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A series of 4''-O-acyl derivatives of 8a-aza-8a-homoerythromycins A were synthesized and tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Derivatives of 8a-aza-8a-homoerythromycin A have potent anti-bacterial activity against not only azithromycin-susceptible strains, but also efflux (M) and inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. These compounds show moderate to high clearance and low oral bioavailability in preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rat.
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Vision and hearing impairment control interventions are generally cost effective. To decide whether substantial investments in these interventions is warranted, this finding should be considered in relation to the economic attractiveness of other, existing or new, interventions in health.
Seven trials involving 773 participants met the inclusion criteria. The trials used adequate methods to generate the allocation sequence and conceal allocation, and were open label. Three trials exclusively included adults, two included children, and two included both adults and children; all were hospital inpatients. One trial evaluated azithromycin against chloramphenicol and did not demonstrate a difference for any outcome (77 participants, 1 trial). When compared with fluoroquinolones in four trials, azithromycin significantly reduced clinical failure (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.89; 564 participants, 4 trials) and duration of hospital stay (MD -1.04 days, 95% CI -1.73 to -0.34 days; 213 participants, 2 trials); all four trials included people with multiple-drug-resistant or nalidixic acid-resistant strains of S. Typhi or S. Paratyphi. We detected no statistically significant difference in the other outcomes. Compared with ceftriaxone, azithromycin significantly reduced relapse (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70; 132 participants, 2 trials) and not other outcome measures. Few adverse events were reported, and most were mild and self limiting.