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Zocef

Zocef (generic name: cefuroxime axetil; brand names include: Zinacef / Bacticef / Cefasun / Cefudura / Cefuhexal / Cefurax / Cefutil / Cetil / Froxime / Elobact / Oraxim / Zinnat) belongs to a group of medicines known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Zocef is used to treat various bacterial infections including infections of the throat, lungs and ears; skin and skin structure infections; and urinary tract infections. Zocef is also used to treat uncomplicated gonorrhea and Lyme disease.

Other names for this medication:
Altacef, Cefakind, Ceftin, Ceftum, Cefuroxime, Oratil, Pulmocef, Stafcure, Supacef, Zinacef

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Also known as:  Ceftin.

Description

Zocef eye drops and eye ointment are used to treat bacterial eye infections. Eye infections are a common cause of conjunctivitis. In conjunctivitis, your eye becomes inflamed, feels gritty, and may water more than usual. The white of your eye may look red, and your eyelids can become swollen and stuck together with a discharge when you wake up in the morning. Only one eye may be infected to begin with, but it often spreads to both eyes.

Most cases of infective conjunctivitis clear within a few days without treatment. For more severe infections, or for infections which do not clear on their own, an antibiotic eye drop or ointment such as Zocef can be helpful.

Zocef works by helping to kill the bacteria which are causing the infection. It is available on prescription. You can also buy the drops and the ointment from a pharmacy, without a prescription, if it is for conjunctivitis in an adult or a child over 2 years of age. Do not use Zocef eye drops or ointment for a child under 2 years old, unless it has been prescribed by a doctor.

Dosage

Take this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

You may take Zocef tablets with or without meals.

Zocef oral suspension (liquid) must be taken with food.

Shake the oral liquid well just before you measure a dose. To be sure you get the correct dose, measure the liquid with a marked measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

If you switch from using the tablet form to using the oral suspension (liquid) form of Zocef, you may not need to use the same exact dosage in number of milligrams. The medication may not be as effective unless you use the exact form and strength your doctor has prescribed.

Use this medication for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. Zocef will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

This medication can cause you to have false results with certain medical tests, including urine glucose (sugar) tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using Zocef.

Overdose

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Overdose symptoms may include seizure (black-out or convulsions).

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zocef are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Contact your doctor right away if stomach pain or cramps, severe diarrhea, or bloody stools occur during treatment or within several months after treatment with Zocef. Do not treat diarrhea without first checking with your doctor.

The tablet and oral suspension forms of Zocef are not equivalent. Do not substitute one for the other.

Zocef only works against bacteria; it does not treat viral infections (eg, the common cold).

Be sure to use Zocef for the full course of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely. The bacteria could also become less sensitive to this or other medicines. This could make the infection harder to treat in the future.

Long-term or repeated use of Zocef may cause a second infection. Tell your doctor if signs of a second infection occur. Your medicine may need to be changed to treat this.

Diabetes patients - Zocef may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong. Ask your doctor before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Hormonal birth control (eg, birth control pills) may not work as well while you are using Zocef. To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control (eg, condoms).

Lab tests, including liver function, kidney function, and complete blood cell count, may be performed while you use Zocef. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Zocef should not be used in children younger 3 months; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Zocef while you are pregnant. Zocef is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Zocef.

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The failure rate of primary empirical anti-infective treatment of community-acquired pneumonia is reported to range between 2 and 7%. These patients are subject to a greater risk of intensive medical treatment and a higher mortality rate than patients who respond to primary treatment. We investigated 63 patients in a "real life scenario" who were admitted to the hospital after failure of primary outpatient therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. Thirty-three patients received intravenous standard therapy (betalactam 14, macrolide 3, levofloxacin 6, doxycycline 1, combinations 9 patients) while 30 patients were treated with intravenous moxifloxacin. The oral antibiotic pretreatment that failed most frequently was clarithromycin (n = 25), followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (n = 16), cefixime (n = 10), cefuroxime/axetil (n = 5), doxycycline (3), cefpodoxime, and ciprofloxacin (2 each). There were no differences between the two groups in respect of age, gender, numbers of patients in nursing homes, numbers of patients with different underlying diseases (chronic bronchitis, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, smoking, etc.), severity of pneumonia at the time of admission, numbers of patients requiring intensive care, and lethality. The group that underwent standard therapy experienced failure of the empirical intra-hospital antibiotic therapy more often during therapy [10 (30%) patients vs 2 (6%) in the moxifloxacin group, p = 0.009] and clinical failure of treatment on day 28 after initiation of therapy [7 (21%) patients vs 2 (6%) in the moxifloxacin group, p = 0.003]. In cases of failure of empirical preclinical antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia, subsequent intrahospital treatment with moxifloxacin is more successful than standard therapy in our study reflecting a "real life scenario".

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The data showed the flow-through cell to be unequivocally the most robust dissolution method for the nanoparticulate system. Furthermore, the dissolution profiles conform closely to the classic Noyes-Whitney model, indicating that the increase in dissolution rate as particles become smaller results from the increase in surface area and solubility of the nanoparticles.

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Biphasic floating minitablets of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by melt granulation technique using two different grades of gelucire namely 50/13 and 43/01 to maintain constant plasma drug concentration. Loading dose of cefuroxime axetil was formulated as immediate release (IR) minitablets by using hydrophilic grade of gelucire 50/13. Maintenance dose was formulated as floating sustained release (SR) minitablets by using hydrophobic grade of gelucire 43/01. The prepared IR and SR granules were subjected to micromeritic studies and scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) study revealed that drug and selected carriers were compatible. In vitro dissolution study of optimized IR minitablets showed more than 85% of loading dose dissolved within 30 min. Optimized SR minitablets showed zero lag time with floating duration more than 12 h. The drug release from SR minitablets was linear with square root of time with non-Fickian diffusion-controlled release. The optimized batch of minitablets was filled into 0 size hard gelatin capsule. In vitro dissolution study for capsule showed an immediate burst release followed by SR up to 12 h. There is no significant change in dissolution data after storage at 40 °C and 75% RH for three months. Microbiological assay of dissolution samples of optimized minitablets filled in capsules showed proportionate increase in inhibition of growth against Escherichia coli up to 12 h samples. In vivo bioavailability study in albino rabbits showed three times improvement in oral bioavailability.

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Cefuroxime is a second generation cephalosporin antibiotic with a broad spectrum activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the pharmaceutical quality standards of four different brands of cefuroxime axetil 125 mg tablets with different price ranges purchased from retail pharmacies of Pakistan. The brands were tested for physicochemical evaluation and in vitro dissolution studies in different medium like 0.07N HCl, distilled water, 0.1N HCl of pH 1.2 and phosphate buffers of pH 4.5 and pH 6.8. Statistical analysis, model dependent (zero order, first order, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Hixson-Crowell, Weibull) and model independent (Difference f1, similarity f2) approaches were applied to multiple dissolution profile of all brands. All brands were found to be similar with reference and meeting the compendial quality standard. Inter brand variation was observed in disintegration time and assay which was resulted in significant differences (P<0.05) in drug release data and Weibull was observed as best fill model.

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Patients with AECOPD and without radiographic evidence of pneumonia were enrolled and randomized to either levofloxacin 500 mg daily or cefuroxime 250 mg twice daily in the mildmoderate exacerbation group, or 500 mg twice daily in the severe exacerbation group, for seven days. Clinical efficacy and microbiologic response were evaluated 5-7 days after the last dose.

zocef antibiotic

Studies regarding the cross-reactivity and tolerability of alternative cephalosporins in large samples of subjects with an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cephalosporins are lacking.

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A simple rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for estimation of cefuroxime axetil from bulk drug and tablet dosage form by using 1-nitroso-2-napthol and sodium hydroxide. The method is based on the formation of yellow-orange coloured complex of drug with 1-nitroso-2-napthol having absorbance maxima at 424 nm. The Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 10-50 mug/ml of the drug but more precisely it obeys in the range of 10- 30 mug/ml. The slope and intercept values are 0.0101 and 0.0838, respectively. Results of analysis of this method were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The method is applied to the marketed tablet formulation. Result of analysis of tablet formulation given as percentage of label claim +/-standard deviation is 99.17+/-1.57. The precision and accuracy was examined by performing recovery studies and was found to be 99.50+/-1.82. Sandell's correlation coefficient is calculated as 0.4434. The developed method is simple, sensitive and reproducible and can be used for routine analysis of cefuroxime axetil from bulk and tablet dosage form.

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Otitis media is a common childhood disease with a spectrum of pathology ranging from acute, painful infection to persistent middle ear effusion to chronic negative middle ear pressure and development of cholesteatoma. Amoxicillin remains the initial empiric drug of choice with TMP-SMZ or erythromycin-sulfisoxazole used for penicillinallergic patients or for amoxicillin therapy failures. Amoxicillin-clavulante, cefuroxime axetil (no elixir form available) or cefixime may then be tried keeping in mind relative costs, side effects, dosing frequency and drug formulation. Prophylactic amoxicillin or sulfisoxazole at one-half the usual daily dose given once a day throughout the URI season is effective in reducing the number of episodes of AOME. Prolonged sulfonamide use should be carefully monitored. Tympanostomy tube insertion is indicated for frequently recurring otitis media and for persistent middle ear effusions. Adenoidectomy is an adjunctive procedure shown to be effective in children requiring a second set of tubes for recurrent infections or for children four years old or older with persistent middle ear fluid. Tympanoplasty may be necessary to prevent ossicular chain damage due to severe cases of MEVD or to repair non-healing perforations. Cholesteatomas must be surgically removed and may require elaborate reconstructive techniques.

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A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm parallel design, multicentre study was conducted among adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) in order to compare the efficacy and safety of two different doses of levofloxacin with cefuroxime axetil. A total of 832 patients were randomized to receive oral levofloxacin (250 mg od or 500 mg od) or oral cefuroxime axetil (250 mg bd) for 7-10 days. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the clinical response in patients with bacteriologically confirmed AECB, determined 5-14 days after the end of therapy (per-protocol population). Of 839 patients enrolled (at 71 centres in 14 countries), seven were not treated, giving an intention-to-treat (ITT) population of 832. In total, 281 patients received levofloxacin 250 mg, 280 received levofloxacin 500 mg and 271 received cefuroxime axetil. The cure rates in the ITT population were: levofloxacin 250 mg, 70% (196/281); levofloxacin 500 mg, 70% (195/280); cefuroxime axetil, 61% (166/271); those in the per-protocol population were: 78% (121/156), 79% (108/137) and 66% (88/134), respectively. Both doses of levofloxacin were at least as effective as cefuroxime axetil and were active against the main pathogens of clinical relevance (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis). All three treatment regimens were equally well tolerated. In conclusion, the results show that levofloxacin (250 mg and 500 mg) od is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of AECB in adult patients.

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In the presence of wound infection from snakebite injury in Hong Kong, first line empirical antibiotics include amoxicillin/clavulanic acid plus levofloxacin. Prophylactic antibiotics may be considered in selected cases of Chinese cobra (N. atra) bite, otherwise prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended in snakebite unless tissue necrosis is present.

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A total of 311 patients presenting with uncomplicated gonorrhoea were entered into a comparative randomized open-label study and given single-dose treatment with either oral cefuroxime axetil (CAE) or intramuscular procaine penicillin (PP). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was eliminated from 129 (98%) of 131 evaluable patients treated with CAE and 127 (98%) of 129 evaluable patients treated with PP. None of the 4 treatment failures (3 male and 1 female) were caused by beta-lactamase-producing isolates. Both treatments were well tolerated with minor adverse events reported in 3 (2%) of CAE treated patients. We conclude that CAE is an effective, well tolerated treatment for uncomplicated gonorrhoea which has the convenience and acceptability of single-dose oral therapy.

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The choice of antimicrobials did not influence the duration of middle ear effusion, which was much shorter than had been thought previously. Children with unilateral AOM were cured much more quickly than those with bilateral AOM.

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zocef 250 mg in pregnancy 2017-02-03

Pansinus opacification (ethmoid and maxillary sinuses), on CT scans in children with short-duration purulent nasal drainage was seen in 70% of children. An additional 20% had isolated maxillary sinus effusions (10% had no effusion). Three-week follow-up CT scans on 17 children were normal in 60% and improved (partial clearance) in 40%. In this patient population, the decision to treat with Metronide 400mg And Alcohol antibiotics should be made on clinical grounds alone.

zocef syrup uses 2017-06-13

Despite their greater cost compared with other antibiotics, the cephalosporins continue to be used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Most cephalosporins are excreted primarily by the kidney (by glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, or both) and urinary concentrations routinely exceed 1000 mg/L after even a small dose; exceptions include cefoperazone and ceftriaxone which both exhibit significant biliary excretion, and in patients with significant renal dysfunction only minimal concentrations of these drugs may be present in the urine. Although single-dose treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections with oral cephalosporins has not been as effective as with other antibiotics, cephalexin, cephradine and cefaclor continue to be used. Early clinical trials with cefuroxime axetil also appear promising for short term and single-dose therapy. The parenteral cephalosporins are reserved for use against more resistant strains or in hospitalised patients with upper urinary tract infections, their choice being directed by in vitro susceptibility tests. Newer agents such as ceftazidime and cefsulodin have been shown to be effective in infections due to P. aeruginosa. Recommended cephalosporin dosage regimens for Rulide Child Dose the common urinary tract pathogens are given.

zocef suspension 2016-09-18

Randomization (stratified on steroid use) between moxifloxacin (400 mg qd for 5 days) and standard therapy (amoxicillin [500 mg tid for 7 days], clarithromycin [500 mg bid for 7 days], or cefuroxime-axetil [250 mg bid for Cefdinir 300 Mg Capsule Sandoz 7 days]).

tablet zocef 125 2015-01-07

Normal tympanograms were obtained after a median time of 7.5 d (range 1-58 d) among 75 successfully monitored patients. In two-thirds (69%) of them, effusion resolved in 14 d. The median duration of effusion did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups (8 vs 7 days, p=0.7). The children who had unilateral AOM cured more rapidly than those with bilateral AOM (5 vs 19 d, p Amoxil 500 Mg Price <0.001). In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, bilaterality explained treatment failure at 2 wk with an odds ratio of 28.1 (95% CI 4.6-169.5, p<0.001).

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Co-prescription therapy, using ranitidine bismuth citrate and one or more antibiotics, is suitable for further investigation in large-scale clinical trials in patients infected with H. pylori Ciprofloxacin Hcl Dose .

zocef tablet 2015-10-27

Microdilution MIC assays were performed using CLSI-approved methods. S. pneumoniae 19A strains Levaquin 200 Mg were identified by quellung reaction.

zocef 750 mg 2016-06-17

Bacteria continuously evolve their resistance mechanisms to antibiotics, either in community or in the hospital setting. Production of beta-lactamases is one of the oldest way to overcome antimicrobial agents activity, since it was first described in 1944 immediately after the penicillin discovery. Beta-lactamases are enzymes hydrolysing the beta-lactam nucleus of beta-lactam antibiotics by using two strategies: a nucleophilic attack of a Antirobe Dose Dogs serine residue or activating a water molecule via a Zn++. Cefuroxime is a injectable cephalosporin which can be also orally administered as a pro-drug named cefuroxime axetil. Cefuroxime has been classified as a second generation cephalosporin, even though the strict subgrouping of cephalosporins into classes is critically discussed by the Authors. Cefuroxime was the first beta-lactam with a higher stability to beta-lactamase hydrolysis due to its methoxy-imino side chain in position 7 of the cephem nucleus. Many of the clinically significant bacterial species producing beta-lactamases such as Haemophilus, Moraxella, Staphylococci and most Enterobacteriaceae then remain susceptible to cefuroxime. The more evoluted enzymes such as carbapenemases, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases or over-expressed cephalosporinases hydrolyse nearly all the beta-lactams antibiotics including cefuroxime. The available literature on the bacterial susceptibility to cefuroxime in Italy and use of cefuroxime in clinical settings where beta-lactamase producing bacteria could be involved has been analysed in the review. In conclusion, cefuroxime still represents a valid therapeutic option even in presence of most of the beta-lactamase producing bacteria.

cefuroxime axetil tablets ip zocef 500 2015-02-15

Ciprofloxacin is as effective as cefuroxime axetil in the treatment of community-acquired acute sinusitis Macrobid Good Reviews .

zocef syrup dosage 2016-10-25

We have used a dynamic in-vitro model to determine the killing kinetics of two formulations of cefuroxime axetil against 18 clinical strains of Haemophilus influenzae. The concentration of cefuroxime axetil was adjusted dynamically to simulate the mean serum profile in healthy volunteers following the administration of a single 250 mg dose in oral suspension or tablet form. Bacterial numbers were reduced by 3 log10 cfu/mL during the eight-hour experimental period with both dosage form simulations. Our results suggest that cefuroxime axetil, 250 mg in oral suspension or tablet form, may protect against the dissemination of Sulfa Containing Drugs H. influenzae during episodes of bacteraemia.

zocef 250 tablet price 2017-07-27

Cefuroxime axetil (CA) has exhibited interactions with the polymers hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, cellulose acetate trimellitate, and Eudragit E resulting in the generation of unacceptable amounts of impurities and degradation. Formulations, which mask the bitter taste of CA and release it immediately in the stomach, have therefore not been possible. In an attempt to overcome the interaction with CA, we report a self-associated cationic polymer (NREP) containing methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxy ethylmethacrylate (HEMA), and 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP). The hydrogen bonding between the pyridine nitrogen and the hydroxyl groups of HEMA results in strong intrachain associations, prevents interactions between NREP and CA, and inhibits degradation of CA. This has been validated by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, NMR, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. These self-associations restrict polymer chain motions, enhance biocompatibility, and lead to a higher Tg, which ensures that NREP does not become tacky in processes involving heat. The judicious choice of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers renders the polymer hydrophobic enough as to mask the bitter taste of CA at near neutral pH. Incorporation of Zinacef 250 Mg the basic monomer 4-VP ensures rapid dissolution of the polymer and release of CA at the acidic pH prevalent in the stomach. The work indicates an approach to design pH-sensitive polymers for dosage forms that meet the pharmacokinetic requirements of the drug.