The in vitro activity of telithromycin was compared with erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, ampicillin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone against 336 consecutive strains (83 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 168 Haemophilus influenzae and 85 Moraxella catarrhalis) isolated from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Telithromycin (MIC(90), 0.008 mg/l) was the most active drug against S. pneumoniae. Telithromycin was also highly active against M. catarrhalis (MIC(90), 0.06 mg/l), but less active against H. influenzae (MIC(90), 4 mg/l).
uses of zocin 500 mg
Village prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection and presence of elimination at 24 months in preschool children determined by polymerase chain reaction, correcting for baseline prevalence. Antibiotic treatments were performed after sample collections.
zocin 500 mg posologie
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters derived from animal and clinical models of infection are used to predict bacteriological efficacy. Growing evidence from the clinical setting supports the validity of these parameters in guiding antimicrobial therapy. For example, in otitis media and sinusitis, high bacteriological cure rates are obtained when serum concentrations of beta-lactams and macrolides exceed the MIC of the infecting pathogen for at least 40% of the dosing interval. Likewise, the 24-hour AUC/MIC ratio is a good predictor of both bacteriological and clinical efficacy for azithromycin in otitis media and fluoroquinolones in bacterial pneumonia. The value of PK/PD relationships has been recognized by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) as another important factor to consider when establishing susceptibility breakpoints. Recent changes to NCCLS breakpoints for oral beta-lactams for Streptococcus pneumoniae reflect this. Also, PK/PD parameters may play a role in predicting the impact of an antibiotic on the development and spread of resistant organisms. In an era of increasing resistance, we should select agents and doses that provide drug concentrations that exceed the magnitude of the PK/PD parameter required both for efficacy and to combat the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of coadministered azithromycin (AZI) and piperaquine (PQ) for treating malaria in pregnant Papua New Guinean women.
Antibiotics are known to be one of the major risk factors for fungal infection. We investigated whether there was a relationship between particular documented fungal infections and therapeutically or prophylactically administered antimicrobials in 105 patients with fungemia or histologically proven invasive aspergillosis or fusariosis. Out of 105 patients, 82.9% received antimicrobials affecting anaerobic microbial gut flora such as: imipenem, vancomycin, ceftazidime, metronidazole, clindamycin or ampicillin-sulbactam. In addition, 44.5% of patients had received prophylaxis with ofloxacin. 31.5% of Candida albicans fungemias occurred despite empiric therapy with amphotericin B and 21.1% during prophylaxis with azoles. The incidence of C. albicans infections (fungemias) was significantly higher (58.9% vs 33.7%, p<0.04) in patients receiving antibiotics not affecting anaerobic gut flora such as ofloxacin, an aminoglycoside or azithromycin. On the other hand, patients treated with third generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, glycopeptides, and broad spectrum penicillins were more likely to develop proven invasive Aspergillus spp. infection (27.9% vs 5.3%, p<0.001) in comparison to those treated with antimicrobials which preserve anaerobic gut flora.
Analysis revealed extensive middle and inner ear changes associated with all formulations of AZ. Moderate correlation was found between the extent of middle ear changes and AZ concentration (r(2) = 0.59), whereas a strong correlation was seen between inner ear damage and AZ concentration (r(2) = 0.94). Both inner and outer hair cells were affected, with inner hair cell damage consistently greater than outer hair cell damage.
Improvement in phase transition temperature of the meibomian gland lipid with the determined percent trans rotomer composition of the lipid strongly suggests that the ordering of the lipid molecules is altered in the disease state (MGD) and that azithromycin can improve that abnormal condition toward normal in a manner that correlates with clinical response to therapy.
The preferred drugs for the treatment of syphilis, benzathine and procaine penicillin, have not been available in Shanghai for many years, and currently, the incidence of syphilis is increasing. Alternative antibiotics for patients with syphilis during the benzathine and procaine penicillin shortage include macrolides. The failure of macrolide treatment in syphilis patients has been reported in Shanghai, but the reason for this treatment failure remains unclear. We used polymerase chain reaction technology to detect a 23S rRNA A2058G mutation in Treponema pallidum in 109 specimens from syphilis patients. The use of azithromycin/erythromycin in the syphilis patients and the physicians' prescription habits were also assessed based on two questionnaires regarding the use of macrolides. A total of 104 specimens (95.4%) were positive for the A2058G mutation in both copies of the 23S rRNA gene, indicating macrolide resistance. A questionnaire provided to 122 dermatologists showed that during the penicillin shortage, they prescribed erythromycin and azithromycin for 8.24±13.95% and 3.21±6.37% of their patients, respectively, and in the case of penicillin allergy, erythromycin and azithromycin were prescribed 15.24±22.89% and 7.23±16.60% of the time, respectively. A second questionnaire provided to the syphilis patients showed that 150 (33.7%), 106 (23.8%) and 34 (7.6%) individuals had used azithromycin, erythromycin or both, respectively, although the majority did not use the drugs for syphilis treatment. Our findings suggest that macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum is widespread in Shanghai. More than half of the syphilis patients had a history of macrolide use for other treatment purposes, which may have led to the high prevalence of macrolide resistance. Physicians in China are advised to not use azithromycin for early syphilis.
zocin 250 mg uses
A single round of PT (azithromycin 1 g) was given to all female sex workers reached during a 1 month period of enhanced outreach activity. Routine sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening services were successfully introduced for two groups of unregistered sex workers who work in brothels (BSWs) and on the street (SSWs). No changes were made to existing screening methods for registered sex workers (RSWs) or lower risk guest relations officers (GROs). Cross sectional prevalence of Ng and Ct was measured by PCR on three occasions, and stratified by type of sex work. Ng/Ct prevalence was assessed twice in clients of BSWs.
Of the 12 communities, 10 required more than one monitoring day. On average, 16.1% (95% CI 7.9-30.0) of children were enrolled after the initial day. Evidence of chlamydia was found in 7.1% (95% CI 2.7-17.4) of 0- to 9-year-old children. No ocular swabs collected after the initial day were positive for chlamydial RNA. Children examined after the initial monitoring day were significantly less likely to have ocular chlamydial infection than children seen on the initial day; Mantel-Haenszel common OR = 0 (95% CI 0-0.77).
zocin 500 mg
There is limited data from 76 countries, which previously reported yaws. Different doses of azithromycin are used in community mass treatment for yaws and trachoma.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using a hetero polysaccharide (PS) isolated from Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer. The polysaccharide fraction (consisting of glucose, fucose and galactose) serves the role of both reducing as well as stabilizing agent. UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 407 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibited that the average diameter of the nanoparticles was 2.78±1.47 nm. The XRD analysis revealed face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of the AgNPs-PS conjugate was tested against multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Escherichia coli strain MREC33 and found that the killing was due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Internalization of AgNPs-PS conjugate along with its DNA degradation capability was demonstrated using flow cytometry. AgNPs-PS conjugates showed negligible toxicity to human RBCs. This LD50 dosage of AgNPs-PS conjugates in combination with each of the four antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, kanamycin and netilmicin) to which E. coli MREC33 was resistant, showed synergistic effect to inhibit complete bacterial growth.