We compared the in vitro activities of tigecycline with those of other agents against 97 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 140 Haemophilus influenzae and 54 Moraxella catarrhalis strains isolated in two large university hospitals in Istanbul.
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To evaluate the efficacy of azithromycin in preventing congenital syphilis.
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Novel azithromycin (AZM) derivatives with the C-4″ bisamide side chains were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities. The 4″-O-(benzamido)alkyl carbamates showed excellent activity against the erythromycin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and exhibited greatly improved activity against erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae. Among them, compounds 5g and 6g, which had the same electron-withdrawing group, 3,5-dinitrophenyl, on the termination of their C-4″ bisamide side chains, demonstrated the most potent activity against erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae expressing the erm gene, the mef gene and the erm and mef genes, showing 128-fold, 33-fold and 32-fold improved activity in comparison with the parent AZM.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 15 February 2012; doi:10.1038/ja.2012.3.
Chronic cryptosporidiosis was confirmed in 3 patients with XHIM and in one patient with primary CD4 lymphopenia. Molecular diagnosis showed the presence of C parvum, C hominis, and C meleagridis in analyzed specimens.
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In naive cystic fibrosis mice, a spontaneous lung inflammation was observed, characterized by macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, and increased intra-luminal content of the pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2. After induced inflammation, cystic fibrosis mice combined exaggerated cellular infiltration and lower anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 production. In cystic fibrosis mice, azithromycin attenuated cellular infiltration in both baseline and induced inflammatory condition, and inhibited cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) release in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.
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Household willingness to pay for treatment provides important information for programme planning. We tested for relationships between socioeconomic status, risk of trachoma, perceptions of the effects of azithromycin, and the household willingness to pay for future mass treatment with azithromycin.
Macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin or clarithromycin are known to have potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects but these properties cannot be widely used due to a risk of bacterial resistance. We studied another polyketide antibiotic, structurally related manumycin A known as a streptomycete derived farnesyltransferase inhibitor with limited antibacterial effects, with respect to its potential regulation of mRNA expression of several genes associated with proinflammatory responses. Downregulation of mRNA for IL-6, TLR-8, IL-1 beta and IL-10 was found in THP-1 cells after 4h stimulation with TNF alpha in the presence of manumycin A and downregulated TLR-8 and EGR-1 genes were observed after 8h. Among the genes upregulated in response to manumycin were HMOX-1, TNFRSF10A, IL-1R1, TICAM2, NLRP12 after 4h and only IL-1R1 after 8h. Furthermore, manumycin A was found to inhibit IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 production in TNF alpha stimulated THP-1 cells and peripheral blood monocytes in a dose dependent manner (0.25-1 μM of manumycin A) without affecting cell viability. Cell viability of blood monocytes decreased by about 30% at manumycin A doses of 2-5 μM. Manumycin A also inhibited IL-18 release from THP-1 cells, while in cultures of blood monocytes, this cytokine was not detectable. That manumycin A mediated downregulation of proinflammatory genes in human monocytes confirmed by a measurement of cytokine levels in culture supernatants, together with a very limited effect on cell viability, might suggest potential anti-inflammatory properties of this polyketide antibiotic.
The study included 125 adult patients (> 18years of age) who had symptoms of chronic prostatitis and proven presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. The presence of C. trachomatis was confirmed in expressed prostatic secretion or in voided bladder urine collected immediately after prostatic massage by a DNA/RNA hybridization method and/or by isolation on McCoy culture and then by immunofluorescent typing with monoclonal antibodies. The patients were randomized in the ratio 2/1; azithromycin/doxycycline, to receive a total of 4.0 g azithromycin over 4 weeks, given as a single dose of 1 x 1000 mg weekly for 4 weeks or doxycycline 100 mg b.i.d. for 28 days. Patients' sexual partners were treated at the same time. Clinical and bacteriological efficacy was evaluated 4-6 weeks after the end of therapy. In the group of patients with chlamydial infection of the prostate, there was no significant difference between the eradication rates (azithromycin 65/82, doxycycline 33/43; P = 0.82) and the clinical cure rates (azithromycin 56/82, doxycycline 30/43; P = 0.94) of the two antimicrobials.
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Available MG-positive pre-treatment (n = 82) and post-treatment samples from individuals with clinical treatment failure (n = 20) were screened for 23S rRNA gene mutations. Sixteen (20%) pre-treatment samples possessed resistance mutations (A2058G, A2059G, A2059C), which were significantly more common in patients with symptomatic azithromycin-treatment failure (12/26; 44%) than in those clinically cured (4/56; 7%), p<0.001. All 20 patients experiencing azithromycin-failure had detectable mutations in their post-treatment samples. In 9 of these cases, the same mutational types were present in both pre- and post-treatment samples indicating transmitted resistance, whilst in 11 of these cases (55%), mutations were absent in pre-treatment samples indicating likely selection of resistant isolates have occurred. HRMA was able to detect all mutational changes determined in this study by DNA sequencing. An additional HRMA assay incorporating an unlabelled probe was also developed to detect type 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms found in other populations, with a slightly lower sensitivity of 90%.