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Among children 6 to 23 months of age with acute otitis media, treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate for 10 days tended to reduce the time to resolution of symptoms and reduced the overall symptom burden and the rate of persistent signs of acute infection on otoscopic examination. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00377260.).
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The aim of this study was to explore bactericidal activity of total and free serum simulated concentrations after the oral administration of cefditoren (400 mg, twice daily [bid]) versus the oral administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid extended release formulation (2,000/125 mg bid) against Haemophilus influenzae. A computerized pharmacodynamic simulation was performed, and colony counts and beta-lactamase activity were determined over 48 h. Three strains were used: ampicillin-susceptible, beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) (also resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) and beta-lactamase-positive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) strains, with cefditoren MICs of < or =0.12 microg/ml and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid MICs of 2, 8, and 8 microg/ml, respectively. Against the ampicillin-susceptible and BLNAR strains, bactericidal activity (> or =3 log(10) reduction) was obtained from 6 h on with either total and free cefditoren or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Against the BLPACR strain, free cefditoren showed bactericidal activity from 8 h on. In amoxicillin-clavulanic acid simulations the increase in colony counts from 4 h on occurred in parallel with the increase in beta-lactamase activity for the BLPACR strain. Since both BLNAR and BLPACR strains exhibited the same MIC, this was due to the significantly lower (P < or = 0.012) amoxicillin concentrations from 4 h on in simulations with beta-lactamase positive versus negative strains, thus decreasing the time above MIC (T>MIC). From a pharmacodynamic point of view, the theoretical amoxicillin T>MIC against strains with elevated ampicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanic acid MICs should be considered with caution since the presence of beta-lactamase inactivates the antibiotic, thus rendering inaccurate theoretical calculations. The experimental bactericidal activity of cefditoren is maintained over the dosing interval regardless of the presence of a mutation in the ftsI gene or beta-lactamase production.
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The in vitro activity of a novel oxazolidinone, linezolid, was studied by comparing the activity of linezolid with those of amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against 25 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis isolated from patients with mycetoma. All N. brasiliensis strains tested were sensitive to linezolid (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC(90)], 2 microg/ml; MIC(50), 1 microg/ml). This antimicrobial might constitute a good alternative for treatment of actinomycetoma.
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Our data suggest that there has been an increasing resistance trend to the first-line antibiotics like trimethoprim and Augmentin against E coli. In accordance with NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) guidance, each region should monitor resistance patterns to urinary pathogens on a regular basis and use antibiotics with a low resistance pattern. Further studies are required from other centres in the UK to look at similar data.
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The authors sampled surfaces with swabs that they then used to inoculate selective and differential media. CHRO-Magar Staph aureus (DRG International, Mountainside, N.J.) was the most effective. They used phenotypic and genotypic tests to identify presumptive S. aureus colonies. They determined the sensitivity of S. aureus isolates to five antibiotics, including oxacillin, according to the Kirby-Bauer method.
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A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted at two sites comparing amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) and amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of otitis media with effusion ("secretory otitis media"). One hundred eight subjects were randomly assigned to receive a ten-day course of either drug regimen. Clinical response was assessed at ten days and four weeks after entry. For those without middle ear effusion at four weeks, recurrence rates were measured at 8, 12, and 16 weeks after entry. At ten days following entry, 29 (51.8%) of 56 subjects in the amoxicillin-clavulanate-treated group were effusion free compared with 16 (32.0%) of 50 subjects in the amoxicillin-treated group (P = .06). At four weeks following entry, 26 (50.0%) of 50 subjects in the amoxicillin-clavulanate-treated group were effusion free compared with 23 (51.1%) of 45 subjects in the group given amoxicillin. By the 16-week visit, eight (36.4%) of 22 subjects in the amoxicillin-clavulanate-treated group who were effusion free at four weeks had recurrence of effusion, compared with 12 (63.2%) of 19 subjects in the amoxicillin-treated group. This study suggests that there was a favorable clinical response immediately following treatment in the amoxicillin-clavulanate--treated subjects as compared with those treated with amoxicillin, but this benefit was not sustained at the four-week end point.
The Medical Research Council (MRC) ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL) ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate.
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Antibiotics decrease the mortality rate among the pneumonia patients provided that it is given early in the disease.
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Two hundred and five children with lateral neck infections were included in the study. The clinical diagnosis correlated with the radiology finding in 73.6% with a sensitivity of 28% and a specificity of 92% for lateral neck abscess recognition. The ultrasound finding correlated with the surgical finding in 65.2% with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 33%. When an ultrasound scan was used it changed the intended treatment plan in 10.5% of children.